Chemistry - The Development of Atomic Theories and Their Models

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Chemistry
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Chemistry - The Development of Atomic Theories and Their Models

Dalton’s atomic theory states that atoms of each element are identical in size and weight, as well as the fact that atoms always combine in simple, whole numbered ratios. However, Democritus’ atomic theory states that all matter consists of tiny, invisible particles (atoms), and that there are an infinite amount and they are always in constant motion. Democritus also states that atoms were never created, they’ve just always existed, and they cannot be created or destroyed. Democritus claimed that atoms have physical properties which represent the state of matter, as well.

The Development of Atomic Theories and Their ModelsTanner Grimes ' Baylee Botkin, 6th hour

John Dalton

Democritus

* Dalton, a British chemist, developed his own atomic theory that laid the foundation for all other theories.* His theory consisted of these five principles: all matter is composed of atoms, atoms cannot be made or destroyed, different elements have different types of atoms in terms of their mass, chemical reactions occur when atoms are rearranged, and compounds consist of characteristic groupings of atoms of the constituent elements.

*Bohr worked in England with J.J. Thomson and E. Rutherford, mainly incorperating the quantum theory. This discovery lead to the development of a more accurate model of an atomic structure.*Bohr is best known for his atomic model that vastly improved the original atomic model.*The model shows the energy rings, and the amount of electrons on each ring. The final ring has the correct amount of valence electrons, which show the ion number.

*Thomson performed an experiment using a cathode ray to study electrical current, but consequently discovered the electron.*His discovery of the electron lead to further knowledge on the electron, as well as protons and nuetrons.

"John Dalton." Scientists: Their Lives and Works. Gale, 2006. Student Resources in Context. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType='query='prodId=SUIC'windowstate=normal'contentModules='display-query='mode=view'displayGroupName=Reference'limiter='currPage='disableHighlighting=false'displayGroups='sortBy='search_within_results='p=SUIC'action=e'catId='activityType='scanId='documentId=GALE%7CK2641500047'source=Bookmark'u=farm79262'jsid=bf30f99b29501ca69d94fd7775cbf3e4"Democritus." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2006. Student Resources in Context. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType='query='prodId=SUIC'windowstate=normal'contentModules='display-query='mode=view'displayGroupName=Reference'limiter='currPage='disableHighlighting=false'displayGroups='sortBy='search_within_results='p=SUIC'action=e'catId='activityType='scanId='documentId=GALE%7CK1648000166'source=Bookmark'u=farm79262'jsid=a570faf29e5cc0766ea1853681e953b6"Atomic theory." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. U*X*L, 2007. Student Resources in Context. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType='query='prodId=SUIC'windowstate=normal'contentModules='display-query='mode=view'displayGroupName=Reference'limiter='currPage='disableHighlighting=false'displayGroups='sortBy='search_within_results='p=SUIC'action=e'catId='activityType='scanId='documentId=GALE%7CCV2644300127'source=Bookmark'u=farm79262'jsid=856f96896b0fe1bb3b69cda0347961d2J. J. Thomson, the Discovery of the Electron, and the Study of Atomic Structure."Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Student Resources in Context. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType='query='prodId=SUIC'windowstate=normal'contentModules='display-query='mode=view'displayGroupName=Reference'limiter='currPage='disableHighlighting=false'displayGroups='sortBy='search_within_results='p=SUIC'action=e'catId='activityType='scanId='documentId=GALE%7CCV2643450508'source=Bookmark'u=farm79262'jsid=c2974c6b87a9482700e89e7cf4a27fb6Lerner, K. Lee. "Bohr model." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType='query='prodId=SUIC'windowstate=normal'contentModules='display-query='mode=view'displayGroupName=Reference'limiter='currPage='disableHighlighting=false'displayGroups='sortBy='search_within_results='p=SUIC'action=e'catId='activityType='scanId='documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030319'source=Bookmark'u=farm79262'jsid=7a76c67b125032c7075a6d424639c216

Niels Bohr

J.J. Thomson

*In 400 BC, this Greek philosopher hypothesized his own atomic theory.*It suggests that everything is made of atoms (physically invisible particles), atoms have always existed and cannot be destroyed, and atoms have physical properties that explain the properties of matter.

*Rutherford proposed an atomic structure model based on his gold foil experiment. *Using alpha particles, he concluded that there was somethng massive deep within an atom, something that is now known as the nucleus.*The gold foil experiment was done by shooting electrodes through gold foil in a closed, metal ring.*Rutherford's explanation of charges and deflection pertaining to the nucleus later lead to the configuration of other significant atomic models, such as the Bohr's model.

E. Rutherford

Progression of the Atomic ModelFirst, the atomic model was basically just an atom. No knowledge of any kind of atomic particles was known. As time progressed, more knowledge surfaced due to these scienctists and their experiments. The atomic models eventually gained a more modern look as scientists started to include electrons, protons, and neutrons, along with energy rings.

Cited Sources

E. Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiement

Progression of Atomic Theory Timeline

Bohr's Model of a Carbon Atom

Thomson's Cathode Ray Experiment

Photograph of John Dalton

Depiction of Democritus

for additional information, you can visit:http://cstl-csm.semo.edu/cwmcgowan/ch181/atomhist.htm


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