Chapter 7 Quest

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Chapter 7 Quest

Chapter 7 Cell Structure and Function

7-1 Life is Cellular

The Cell Theory states that1.All living things are composed of cells.2.Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.3.New cells are produced from existing cells.

The Discovery of the Cell

Exploring the Cell

Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) Make it possible to explore cell structures and large protein molecules.

All of these findings can be summarized by the Cell Theory.

Light microscopes make it possible to study living cells but you can't observe tiny structures like proteins.

We can explore cells thanks to microscopes.

Can only observe nonliving, preserved cells and tissues.

Electron Microscopes

Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) Produce three-dimensional images of cells.

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

LysosomesInvolved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.

VacuolesStores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Diagram of all the organelles.

Cells fall into two broad categories, whether they contain a nucleus or not.

NucleusIt contains nearly all the cell's DNA. It also contains Chromatin which condenses to form Chromosomes.

Prokaryotes don't have a nucleus, while Eukaryotes have a nucleus. Prokaryotes(bacteria as an example) tend to be less complicated than Eukaryotes(animals as an example).

Endoplasmic Reticulum The site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.

RibosomesThe small particles in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and proteins.

Scanning probe microscopesCan operate in ordinary air and can even show samples in solution.

Golgi Apparatus Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.

7-3 Cell Boundaries

Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic cell into two major parts, The Nucleus and the Cytoplasm which contains the organelles which means small organs.

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Facilitated DiffusionMovement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.

Diffusion Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated, until equilibrium is reached.

Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Active TransportEnergy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.

Cell WallsThe main function of the cell wall is to provide support and protection for the cell.

Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

Cell Membrane It regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.

Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis

Neither osmosis or diffusion require energy.

CytoskeletonNetwork of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. The cytoskeleton is also involved in movement.

Mitochondria and ChloroplastsMitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. While Chloroplasts use energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

Water will tend to move across the membrane to the left until equilibrium is reached.


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