Chapter 24 by Ann Shelley partners with Niki Silva

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Chapter 24 by Ann Shelley partners with Niki Silva

Chapter 24: Flowering Plants Structure and OrganizationBy: Niki Silva and Ann Shelley

Functions of three specialized tissues:1. Epidermal Tissue: forms the outer protective covering of a plant2. Ground Tissue: fills the interior of a plant3. Vascular Tissue: transports water and nutrients within the plant and provides support a)Xylem: transports water and minerals from roots to leavesb) Phloem: transports sucrose and other organic compounds from leaves to roots

Monocot Versus Eudicot Plants

Organization of a Plant Body: 1. root system: connected to the shoot system by vascular tissue that extends from the roots2. shoot system: contains the stem and leaves and the reproductive structures of the plants.

Organs of Flowering Plants1. Roots: located undergrounda)anchor and give supportb)absorb water and mineralsc)cylindrical shape allows for it to penetrate the soil as it grows and permits water to be absorbedd) root hairs are numerous and increase the absorptive structuree) produce hormones that stimulate the growth of stems

Organs of Flowering Plants2. Stems: shoot systema)main axis of the plantb)terminal bud that allows it to elongate and produce new leavesc)primary photosynthetic organ and have vascular tissue-transport nutrientsParts of the stem:Nodes: where leaves are attached to the stemInternode: region between nodesAxillary Bud: located at a node that produces new branches

Organs of Flowering Plants3. Leaves: carry out photosynthesis-recieve water from root systema)all are differentb)store food and attach to objectsc)absorb carbon dioxide and collect solar energy needed for photosynthesis - cells are livingParts:Blade: wide portion of a foliage leavePetiole: stalk that attaches the blade to the stem

Evergreen: green year-round

Two Types of Leaves

Deciduous: lose all their leaves at the end of growing

Dicots are the larger group from dandelions to oak trees. Monocots are rice, wheat and corn for example.

An informative video on plant parts and functions.

Tissues of Eudicot Root:1. Epidermis: forms the outer layer of the root and consists of only a single layerof cells2. Cortex: moving inward, next to epidermis, thin-walled3. Endodermis: single layer of rectangular cells that form a boundary between cortex and inner vascular cylinder4. Vascular Tissue: contains Xylem and Phloem (pericycle is the first layer of cells)

Monocot roots have the same growth zones as endicot but their tissues are different. The ground tissue is pith and it is centrally located composed of xylem and phloem. Also have pericycle, endodermis, cortex and epidermis.

The Three Grounds:1. Parenchyma: the most abundant-located in plant organs2. Collenchyma: thicker primary walls-give flexible support3. Sclerenchyma: thick secondary walls with lignin (resistant organic substance that makes walls tough)

An informative video on plant structure

How do stems grow? The terminal bud contains the shoot tip protected by bud scales, growth occurs and sclaes fall off and leave a scar. Each bud scar means one year of growth.The shoot apical meristem makes more cells that increase height.

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The body of a leaf is made up of:-Mesophyll Tissue-Palisade Mesophyll (elongated cells)-Spongy Mesophyll (containing irregular cells with air spaces)-Parenchyma cells have chloroplasts

Two Types of Stems:1. Herbaceious: exhibit only primary growth, outermost layer is epidermis and have vascular tissue - corn, flowers2. Woody: primary and secondary tissues - trees and shurbs

How do you tell the age of a tree?One can count the annual rings and find the age.

Bark versus WoodBark: has periderm (cork) and phloem - can be removed but needs phloemWood: secondary xylem that builds up and increases girth


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