Chapter 23: Plant Evolution and Diversity

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Chapter 23: Plant Evolution and Diversity

Chapter 23: Plant Evolution and Diversity

Main Idea:Seed plants alternate generations but they produce both microspores (male) and megaspores (female). The microsporces are spread to the megaspores through pollination. Fertilization then occurs and a seed is created. Gymnosperms and angiosperms are the two types of seed plants. Gynmosperms have seeds not enclosed by fruit and angiosperms have reproductive structures in flowers. Key Terms:-Seed: a sporophyte embryo encapsulated in a protective coat-Gymnosperms: cone-bearing seed plants (plants with seeds not enclosed by fruit)-Angiosperms: flowering plants-Monoecious: one plant has both male and female reproductive structures-Dioecious: one plant has either male or female structures-Monocots: have seeds with only one cotyledon-Cotyledon: seed leaves that provide nutrients to the plant embryo (seed)-Eudicots: have seeds with two cotyledons

Main Idea:Pteridophytes are seedless vascular plants that include ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns. Their main stage of life is sporophyte. Spores blown by wind are the main method of dispersal for these plants. Key Terms-pteridophytes: ferns and related species; seedless vascular plants with megaphylls-megaphylls: wide leaves with vascular tissue; called fronds when on ferns

Kristen Hovland and Emily Brogan


Main Idea:Bryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts-pictured above) were the first plants to move away from water onto land. They are non-vascular and altenate sporophyte and gametophyte generations.Key Terms: -non-vascular: do not have vascular tissue-rhizoids: thin extensions that bryophytes stick into the soil to provide anchorage and some absorption

23.2: Evolution of Bryophytes

23:5 Evolution of Seed Plants

23:4 Evolution of Pteridophytes

Main Idea:Land plants share a common ancestor with freshwater, multicellular algae. Over time, they evolved to develop vascular tissue, dispersal of seeds, production of flowers, etc. These traits allowed plants to move away from water and grow farther inland.Key Terms-alternation of generations: the organism has two forms during it's life(one diploid and one haploid)-embryophyta: the protective case of the embryo-bryophtes: the first, non-vascular plants to colonize land (liverworts, hornworts, mosses, etc.)-vascular tissue: tissue that transports water

23.1: The Green Algae Ancestor of Plants



Main Idea:Plants evolved to move further onto land with the development of roots with vascular tissue. There are two types of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem. Lycophytes are a type of plant that developed closely from these first seedless, vascular plants. Key Terms:-xylem: vascular tissue that conducts water-phloem: vascular tissue that conducts nutrients-microphylls: the leaves of early lycophytes

23:3 Evolution of Lycophytes

Lycophyte Reproduction




Seedless Vascular Plants

Angiosperms v. Gymnosperms



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