by beansonch
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Summary -Land plance evolved from Charophytes which are freshwater green algae around 450 MYA. >Plants evolved, deriving characteristics including seeds to protect the embryo, vascular tissue for transportation of both water and nutrients, flowers, and the dispersal of embryos by other means other than water. >These other means include wind and animals because of the seed's protection.-Advantages of land include greater rates of photosynthesis because of the increased amount of light, and greater concentrations of CO2 because it can more easily diffuse.> Embryos are more likely to survive as well. Seeds are able to provide food and protective coat. >Similarities between land and water plants include cellulose cell walls, apical cells, plasmodesmata, and placenta. >Derived traits include embryophyta: land plants prectect embryo, sporophyte:multicellular sporangia, sporangia: which during meiosis produce more spores, and spores (gametophyte). -The first plants to colonize land were bryophytes including hogwarts, liverwarts and mosses. >These plants lacked vascular tissue and sporophytes still depended on gametophytes. -Lycophyters were the next evolution of plants and did contain vascular tissue.> They contained xylem to transport water and phloem to transport nutrients. >These plants also had the first leaves which are called microphylls. -The evolution of Pteridophytes include ferns and horsetails which are seedless vascular plants around 370mMYA. >These contain megaphylls which are broad leaves containing the vascular tissue.  >These plants can be asexual with the dominant stage of life being the sporophyte. -The full adaptation of land was the evolution of seed plants which are heterosporous. >With both microspores and megaspores they can produce both sexually and asexually. >Examples include conifers, angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Terms -Charophytes: freshwater green algae of which land plants are most closely related-Whorls: clusters of branches-nodes: the areas inbetween enlarged cells located in the main axis-Apical: the tip of a branch-spore: haploid reproductive cell, eventually fuses with with another reproductive cell-embryophyta: protect the embryos in land plants-sporophyte: the asexual diploid phase (2n generation)-Sporangia: in meiosis they produce spores-gametophyte: n generation-antheridium: male gametangiium-archegonium: female gametangium-cuticle: waxy substance covering the pant. helps conserve water-stomata:opens to allow gas exchange-bryophytes: first plants to colonize land including hornworts, liverworts, and mosses-vascular tissue: transports both organic nutrients and water throughout the plant-nonvascular plants: lack vascular tissue, usually very small-rhizoids: hairlike extensions that cover the plant creating more surface area-vascular plants: contain xylem to transport water and phloem to transport nutrients-microphylss: leaves of lycophyte plants-rhizome: roots underground come off of this-angiosperms: flowering plants-motocots: seeds contain only one cotyledon-dicots: seeds contain 2 cotyledons-peduncle: contains the flower stalk-receptacle: contains everything else in the plant-sepals: protect the flower bud before it buds-petals: attract polinators-stamens: contains anther and filament-carpel: the center of the flower with the stigma, style and ovary

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Chapter 23: Plant Evolution and Diversity



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