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by Nandos1999
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Endoplasmic Reticulum. (ER)It is a large network of membrane-bound tubes and sheets. There are two types of ER, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER).

It cconsists of a system of membrane bound vesicles arranged approximately parallel to each other in stacks called cisterns.It's functions include the storage, modification and packaging of products in vesicles. It is also involved in the formation of lysosomes.

Mitochondria : They are very strange organelles in the sense that they ghave their own DNA and ribosomes. Thus they are able to make some of their own proteins.Vacuoles : They are strange sacs for solid or liquid contents. Vacuoles are small sized in animal cells while plant cell have very large vacuoles.

Cells were first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 when he observed a slice of cork under a microscope. Hooke saw little compartments which he called cells which means "little room" in Latin.Cell membrane: It is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from its external environment. It is a semi-permeable membrane. Cell wall: Plant cells, in addition to the plasma mambrane, have another rigid outer covering called cell wall. It is mainly composed of cellulose.Nucleus: It has a double layered covering called nuclear membrane. It plays a central role in cellular reproduction, the process by which a single cell divides and forms two new cells.Cytoplasm: It is a fluid liquid inside the cell membrane, it also contains many specialised cell organelles. Each of these organelles performs a specific function for the cell.


Plastids.They are present only in plant cells. There are two types of plastids: Chromoplasts (coloured plastids) and Leucoplasts (white or colourless plastids). They have their own DNA and ribosomes.

Lysosomes.They are a kind of waste disposal system of the cell. They contain powerful digestive enzymes capable of breaking down all organic material.



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