Cell Communication

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by frostc313
Last updated 6 years ago

Cell Biology

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Cell Communication

Araya WaltripChris FrostRichard Alire

Glaucus Atlanticus uses the stored nematocysts to defend itself. The venom has been shown to cause fever, shock, problems with the heart and lungs and even death.

A species of small-sized blue sea slugs. They're pelagic aeolid nudibranch, in the family Glaucidae. They feed on other pelagic creatures such as the Portuguese Man o' War and Hydroids, storing the toxins from these creatures for its own use (Store nematocysts in cindosacs at the tip of thier cerata).

Glaucus Atlanticus

Cell Communication


Project By:

Man o' War:


Basics of Signal Transduction Pathway:

Signal transduction is when extracellular signalling molecule activates a specific receptor in the cell or on the cell surface, which triggers a biochemical series of events within the cell to create a response. Within sea slugs, an example may be when a sea slug injects a toxin in response to a threat.

Specifics of Cellular Response and Organismal Response:

Cells use a large number of signaling pathways to regulate their activity. Most signalling pathways can be divided into those that are activated by external stimuli and those that react to what happens internally. The ones that respond to external influences transfer the information from the surface of the cells to the internal effector systems. An example of this might be if a sea slug was threatened by predation from another creature, that information would be transmitted to the internal effector systems, which would in turn signal for the release of a toxic mixture from within the slug’s body. An example of the internal process of a sea slug would be their adaptation to their food source. Sea slugs feed on hydroids (or hydrozoids) and are able to process the resulting stinging cells without harming. They wander through the slug until they reach the innermost internal organs, where they are absorbed and later used as the slugs own defense. The specific internal mechanism that stops the slug from being harmed by the stinging cells is unknown, but it is theorized that there is some internal process that begins when slug eats a hydroid in reaction to those stinging cells.



Type of Receptor

The sea slugs use G-protein coupled receptors. The receptors are extracellular and exclusive to the surface of sensory neurons. These receptors are found only in eukaryotes and activate inside signal transduction pathways. There are two main steps in signal transduction pathways. 1. a signaling molecule attaches to a receptor protein. 2. a second messenger notifies using signals into the cell causing changes to occur.


The signaling mechanism of the glaucus atlanticus is unknown and only has theories behind it.

Signal Mechanism



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