Cell Communication

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by jillianbrueckner568e8ca62820c
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Cell Biology
Grade:
12

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Cell Communication

Cell CommunicationMuscle Contraction (Acetylocholine)

The BasicsAcetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is released from terminal endings and is present in the peripheral and central nervous system. It is synthesized from AcetylCoA and Choline. It helps with muscle movement and control, as well as, regulationg the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles. Acetylocholine is also assiciated with learning, memory, and mood.

Acetylocholine has two types of receptors: muscarinic AChRs and nicotinic AChRs. Muscarinic AChRs are mostly used in smooth and cardiac muscles, it is a type of g-protein. Nicotinic AChRs are used in skeletal muscles and they are a ligand-gated ion channel.

In a muscle contraction, the ligand that activates the pathway is ACh, or Acetylcholine, which then binds to Nicotinic AChR (Acetylcholine Receptor) and Muscarinic AChR. These receptors can be found at the Neuromuscular junctions. Neuromuscular junctions is the place where motor nuerons meet the skeletal muscle, to transmit a signal to the muscle.

Acetolycholine

Signal Mechanism

Type Of Receptor

Signal Transduction Pathway

When the ligand is present it binds to the receptor and changes the shape, allowing ions to flow into the cell. This causes an influx of Ca ions which releases acetylcholine. To stop this, ACh can be dissociated casuing the channel to close.

In correct mechanisms, Action Potential causes the release of ACh into the synaptic cleft of muscle fibers. This travels up the muscle fibers, which tells the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca ions causing the muscle to contract. Acetylcholinesterase destroys ACh making the cell go back to its resting potential. In faulty mechanisms, if acetylcholinesterase is inhibited it will cause ACh to build up. This can result in sweating, bronchial constrictions, convulsions, paralysis, and possible death.

Correct and Faulty Mechanisms

Glog by: Jill B. , Jane K.

Direction Of Current Research

There is research being done on the relationship between Acetylcholine and the degenerative Alzheimer's disease. People lose many nerve cells as the disease progresses. It has been discovered that by taking a drug that partially blocks acetylcholinesterase, the levels of acetylcholine can rise, strengthening the nerve signals that remain(not a cure). The research moves further in this direction with a combination of midi-GAGR, which is a polysaccharide.

Cellular and Organismal ResponseThe muscle cell responds by forming a "cross bridge" between the actin and myosin filaments. The hydrolyzation of ATP and the formation of a cross bridge then allows the muscle fiber to contract.For an organism, when multiple muscle fibers contract, it allows the entire muscle to contract and function.


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