Cell Communication Ecstasy

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by KristaTraxinger
Last updated 8 years ago

Discipline:
Health & Fitness
Subject:
Health

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Cell Communication Ecstasy

Cell Communication:Ecstacy

Signal mechanism (What is the ligand?)

The Basics:Ecstasy is a synthetic drug. When it is taken into the serotonergic neuron, it goes into the serotonin reuptake pumps, which heighten serotonin levels. This results in a biochemical cascade, which releases a euphoric feeling. A few hours later there is a decrease in serotonin levels amplified by reduced activity trytophane hydroxlase, the enzyme that is responsible for synthesizing serotonin. This decrease can last much longer than the initial increase. Artificial increases in neurotransmitter exercises elicit negative feedback on the enzyme that manufactured it.

How MDMA Works

Specifics of cellular response and organismal response

Faulty Mechanism: Ecstasy acts at the synapse or in the area between dendrites and axons or neurons by which the cells communicate. They do this by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters across the synapse, which are received by transport proteins on both sides of the synaps. In a cell that is functioning normally, the neurotransmitter dopamine is used to communicate with another cell across the synapse.

Type of receptor

Basics of signal transduction pathway

MDMA evokes changes in the binding of dopamine D(Z) receptor ligands in the situation with unilateral serotonin depletion. The striation is part of the cerebrum in the brain.

Ecstasy releases serotonin, dopamine, and norepinphrine. The role of the neurotransmitters has not been studied yet in humans. Therefore, researchers investigated the effects of three different neuroreceptor pretreatments on the subjective, cardiovascular, and adverse effects of MDMA. The two main receptors are the dopamine receptor stimulation and serotonergic receptor stimulation. Dopamine releases endorphins, which cause you to be happy. Serotonin is a mild hallucinogen and is also released to improve mood.

Ecstasy is a psychoactive drug that acts as a hallucinogen and stimulant. It is either swallowed as a pill or injected. It improves self-confidence, compassion, empathy towards others, hyperactive intensification of the senses, alertness, hallucinations, energy, and in a more general sense, overall feeling. After the drug has finished it 5-8 hour long cycle, it allows for both short and long-term effects. Short-term concerns are overheating, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Long-term effects include damage to serotonin transporters in the brain as well as memory loss.

Studies demonstrate that genes regulated by MDMA encode proteins that belong to signaling pathways, transcription regulators, or xenobiotic metabolism. Various observations indicate that cortical cells respond to the acute administration of MDMA by modulating transcription of several genes that might lead to long-term changes in the brain.

http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_03/i_03_m/i_03_m_par/i_03_m_par_ecstasy.html

http://archives.drugabuse.gov/meetings/MDMA/MDMAExSummary.htmlBY: BRIANNA KAPASAKIS & KRISTA TRAXINGER

Current Direction of Reseach: Although research has provided proof that MDMA use results in detrimental health defects, there is still much more researchers desire to learn. Their goal to learn about the specifics, such as how long these effects last and how severe they are, is what inspires them to continue their research. Future research will focus on the specifics of how MDMA works and the effects that it has on individuals.


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