Cell biology part 2

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Cell Biology

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Cell biology part 2

Biology 2

Chapter 4Cell Structure and Function



Chapter 5Membrane Structure and Function

Chapter 6Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes

The two laws of Thermodynamics are 1. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.2. Energy can be given off as heat.The 2 types of energy that we discussed are Kinetic (energy to do work) and Potential (Capable to do work).In a reaction, reactants result in products. There are endergonic reactions (absorbs energy) and exergonic reactions (releasing energy). Ezymes and Coenzymes help speed up a reaction.

Chapter 8Cellular Respiration

The Steps in Cellular Respiration include-Glycolysis- No oxygen is needed, and it happens in the cytoplasm 2ATP are produced by the breakdown of glucose Waste product is pyruvateCitric Acid Cycle- Oxygen is needed , and it happens in the mitochondria 2 ATP are prduced per glucose molecule Waste product is CO2Electron transport system- Oxygen is needed, happens in mitochondria 32-34 ATP are produced in ETS Waste product is WaterFermentation involves glycolysis with a reduction of pyruvate either lactate of alcohol and CO2. Fermentation is anerobicCatabolism and Anabolism both utilize the metabolites in metabolic pools.

The cell membrane is also called the fluid mosaic model, it was developed by Singer and Nelson. The two most important items in the fulid mosaic model are proteins and lipids. Proteins help with the transport of molecule in and out of the cell, while lipids help repair the phospholipid head and tails in the phospholipid bi-layer. There are several kinds of proteins that aid in the transport of molecules, they are Channel, Carrier, Cell Recognition, Receptor, and Enzymatic Proteins. Larger substances use endocytosis and exocytosis to enter and exit the cell. Water can diffuse across the membrane, go from a higher to a lower concentration, or it can move by osmosis. Water can be adhesive or cohesive.

As the Cell Theory states: All living things are composed of cells, and cells come from other cells. There are two types of cells, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes don't have a nucleus. The two main groups of Prokaryotes are Bacteria and Archaea. Eukaryotes have a nucleus, and have several organelles to help carry out the functions needed to support life.

By Erika Nord


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