Cardiovascular System

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by jakejones17
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Human Anatomy
Grade:
9,10,11,12

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Cardiovascular System

The SystemThe cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins. The pulmonary circuit carries blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the heart. In the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, and oxygen taken up by the haemoglobin in the red blood cells.The systemic circuit carries blood around the body to deliver the oxygen and returns de-oxygenated blood to the heart. Blood also carries nutrients and waste.ThermoregulationThermoregulation is the process that allows the human body to maintain its core internal temperature.

Plasma is a sticky, pale yellow fluid. It mainly consists of water and also acts as a transport for formed elements.Erythrocytes transport Oxygen to tissues and Carbon Dioxide away from the tissues. They have a disc like shape with a sunken centre. Erythrocytes contain no mitochondria and there is no aerobic respiration preventing them from consuming Oxygen that they transport.Haemoglobin is the protein that gives the red blood cells their colour. It binds with Oxygen and can transport up to 4 molocules of Oxygen.Platelets, otherwise known as thrombocytes, are small fragments of bone marrow cells that are scattered in between blood cells. They are there to help prevent blood loss through clotting.Leucocytes, most commonly reffered to as white blood cells, are part of the immune system and provides a defence against bacteria, viruses and parasites. Leucocytes are larger than RBC, when it is activated, the body will speed up its production to fight infection.

Cardiovascular System

Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins and Venuoles. The blood vessels consist of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. All blood is carried in these vessels. The arteries carry blood away from the heart and have the highest blood pressure. The arteries branch into smaller and smaller vessels, eventually becoming very small vessels called arterioles. Arteries and arterioles have muscular walls that can adjust their size to increase or decrease blood flow to a part of the body.Capillaries are tiny, thin walled vessels that go between arteries and veins. The thin walls of the capillaries let oxygen to pass from the blood into tissues.Blood goes from the capillaries into small veins called venules, then into the veins that go back to the heart. Veins have much thinner walls than arteries do, because the pressure in veins is so much lower. Veins can widen as the amount of fluid in them increases. Some veins, have valves in them, to prevent blood from flowing backward.

Bicuspic valveThe Bicuspic Valve is the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart, which has two tapered cusps. It is one of the four valves of the heart, It allows blood to flow one way only, from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

Blood Composition

Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins and Venuoles.

The System & Thermoregulation


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