Btec work

by Judd6
Last updated 6 years ago

Arts & Music

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Btec work


The sum of characteristics that make us unique. - Hollander, 1971Personality can effect an individuals performance both positivley and negativley.Psychologists have suggested many theories as to what makes up someones personality and how it is formed in the first place.

One theory is Martens schematic theory which suggests that personality is made up of three different layers: Psychological core, Typical response and Role related behaviour. Psychological core - Was described by Martens as "the real you" it is the genetic characteristics that a person can inherit, these characteristics are stable.Typical response - Relates to how a person reacts to a certain situation, a persons typical response can be affected by their psychological core.Role related respose - Is how a person reacts in relation to the role they are given within society or a particular group, for example being made a a captain may effect an athletes performance either positivley or negativly.An example of this theory in sport would be Sir Chris Hoy. his psychological core would be as an intoverted man off the race course, however his typical response in a race situation is usually that of an aggressive racer, constantly trying to overtake oppinents. When he was knighted, he must once again alter his behaviour in order to maintain a good public image, this related to role related behaviour.

Trait Theory suggests that all behaviour is genetically determined, meaning that behaviours can be passed on from generation to generation. It also states that a persons personality can be placed somewhere on the axis of introversion/extroversion stable/unstable. Depending on where on the scale a person lands, they will be predicted to have different characteristics and elements to the personality as stated on the left. An intovert would tend to excell in individual sports as they prefer situations where they are solitary as they do not favour social situations are even tempered and usually very passive in their approach to situations. However the oppisite of this can be said for extroverts, who favour team sports due to the social aspect of the game in which they tend to excell, their aggressive nature and impulsive personalities can have a positive affect in a team enviroment. Someone who displays a stable personality would be advantageous in sport in that they are seemably un-effected by the external enviroment and will not be put off by things such as away supporters. which would mean they excell in sports such as golf where high levels of concentration are keyHowever in some situations where performers need to react to supporters and become motivated accoridnly, such as in sports which require a gross motor skill eg. weightlifting an unstable personality may be advantageous.

This theory states that an individual can be placed in to one of two personality types. Type A and Type B. Individuals who are placed in the personality type A will display characteristics such as; highly competitive, quick worker and a strong desire to succeed, these personalitys are usualy better suited to team sports such as football, rugby or basketball, this is due to their high desire and motivation to win aswell as an having a strong work ethic. that type A tend to share as well as Type B however will be less competitive than their type A counterparts, have a lower need to win and will take their time with tasks. these individuals are best suited to a sport in which they can control their own tempo for example golf, this is due to the sport been at a very slow pace which complements the easy going, relaxed nature of type B indivduals

Social learning theory suggests that all behaviour is and can be facilitated through modelling and observation. Observation is simply the viewing of peers around you and mimicking or modifying their behaviour. In order to use this method of social learning theory you must first have respect for the person that you are observing. The second way in which social learning can be facilitated is through modelling. Modelling occurs in four stages; Attention, retention motor reproduction and motivation. Attention relates to how interested the person trying to replicate the behaviour is in the moddeller, in order for a participant to replicate behaviour they must first have attention to the skill or behaviour that is being demonstrated for example a child watching football would be more likley wo replicate the behaviour of Cristiano Ronaldo as he is the best player in the world and will most liley to have the most respect from an observer. Retention relates to a persons ability to remember the skill or behaviour, retention and the ability to remeber the skill that has been performed may be increased by watching the skill or behaviour multiple times for example if Ronaldo performs a step over, the child may then watch the skill multiple times on replay/ youtube. Motor reproduction is the actual ability to replicate that skill that has being observed, for example if a performer watches a backflip, it does not then mean that they have the capability to replicate the skill, they must first have learnt the motor skills in order to perform it. the final point is motivation which simply means that in order to replicate the skill the performer must have an elavated motivation ro want to be able to cope the behaviour or skill., this can be increased through positive reinforcement, In that if the child then performs the skill that ronaldo displayed the previous night and it is positivly reinfored they will be more likley to repeat that behaviour.



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