Botulinum Neurotoxin

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by ApBioBobertoon
Last updated 6 years ago

Human Anatomy

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Botulinum Neurotoxin

Effector Protein - a molecule that binds to a protein and controls the activity of an enzyme, cell signaling, or gene expression.

Botulinum Neurotoxin

Ligand - A molecule that binds to another molecule.

Effector molecule, SV2 protein (type of glycoprotein), prevents fusion of acetylcholine vesicles with the cell membrane. This prevents the nervous system from communicating.

Ligand binds to the motor nerve endings. This causes paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine. The toxin prevents the vesicles from releasing the acetylcholine.

Cell Signaling Pathways - the pathway of reactions that reach a targeted cell.

Receptors - generally located on the surface of cells; transmit information to nucleus.

Receptors activate when ligand bonds. Cells release acetylcholine, an organic chemical that is released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. When a botulinum toxin enters the body, the toxin prohibits the release of acetylcholine. Without the release of acetylcholine, the cells go into a state known as muscle paralysis.

Botulinum toxin blocks cell signaling pathways by binding to motor proteins.

The botulinum toxin will spread and prevent all cells from working, shutting down organ systems and killing a person.

Cellular Response: the cells go into a state of muscle paralysis (just 2 billionith of a gram).

Botulinum toxin is one of the most poisonous biological substances, produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum. This toxin is used in nuclear warfare, as well as cosmetics. There are 8 exotoxins (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G); all have same effect but vary in severity.


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