Black Civil Rights,1960 Sit-ins,(Assignment),History

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Black Civil Rights,1960 Sit-ins,(Assignment),History

Black Civil Right Sit-ins1819The first route of the Underground Railroad, a network of trails and hiding places that led fleeing slaves to the North, begins in a cave near a creek on what is now the Guilford College campus. A slave from Guilford County, John Dimrey, is the first to follow the Underground Railroad to freedom.1820Benjamin Benson, a slave, wins his freedom in Guilford County Superior Court.1829Greensboro’s first census includes 369 white residents, 101 slaves and 26 free blacks.186513th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States abolishes slavery.186814th Amendment’s equal protection clause requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all people.Late 1860sGreensboro’s first suburb, called Warnersville, is developed near Ashe Street. Ezell Blair Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), a future sit-in participant, will grow up in this community.187015th Amendment guarantees that the right to vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”1873Bennett College for black women opens.March 1, 1875President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Civil Rights Act. The U.S. Supreme Court declares it unconstitutional in 1883.1893Agricultural and Mechanical College (now N.C. A&T) opens.1905The Niagara Movement is founded and is the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.January 1909First meeting of the NAACP is held in New York.July 1917On July 2, violence erupts in East St. Louis, Ill., stemming specifically from the employment of black workers in a factory holding government contracts.On July 28, the NAACP stages a silent parade down Fifth Avenue in New York City, protesting the riot and other acts of violence toward black Americans.1919NAACP membership reaches about 90,000 with more than 300 local branches.192019th Amendment gives women the right to vote.1942Congress of Racial Equality, an interracial American organization, is established to improve race relations and end discriminatory policies through direct-action projects. One of its first activities is a sit-in at a coffee shop in Chicago for the purpose of protesting segregation in public settings.1948President Harry Truman decides to end segregation in the armed forces and the civil service through administrative action (executive order) rather than through legislation.By October 1953, the Army announces that 95 percent of African American soldiers are serving in integrated units.1950sBennett College sociology professor Edward Edmonds leads delegations of parents to the school board to protest inferior educational facilities. He also demands the whites-only swimming pool at Lindley Park be opened to blacks.Dr. George Simkins, a Greensboro dentist, begins a successful drive to desegregate Greensboro’s city-owned golf courses.1951William Hampton becomes the first African American elected to the Greensboro City Council.May 1954Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan., is decided. The Supreme Court declares segregated schools are inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.1955The Supreme Court rules that blacks need not be immediately admitted to pubic schools on a racially nondiscriminatory basis but that school boards should eliminate segregation “with all deliberate speed.” In the South, there is massive resistance to the desegregation of schools.Dec. 1, 1955Rosa Parks refuses to change seats on a Montgomery, Ala., bus, sparking a yearlong bus boycott spearheaded by Martin Luther King Jr.Nov. 13, 1956The U.S. Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation.Sept. 3, 1957Greensboro becomes the first city in the Southeast to desegregate its all-white public schools when five black children enroll at Gillespie Park School.The children endure heckling, but there is no violence. The next day, Greensboro Senior High is integrated when former Dudley student Josephine Boyd transfers.Sept. 9, 1957President Dwight Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. There had been sit-downs — or sit-ins, as they would later be called — in at least 16 Southern cities.Eisenhower sends U.S. Army troops to Little Rock, Ark., to enforce desegregation of schools.Feb. 1, 1960Ezell Blair Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Joseph McNeil and Franklin McCain launch the Greensboro sit-ins. In just two months, the sit-in movement spreads to 54 cities in nine states.After passing by Ralph Johns’ store on Market Street, the four A&T students enter the Elm Street Woolworth at 4 p.m., purchasing school supplies and other items. They then approach the lunch counter and order coffee at 4:30 p.m. They are refused service. The four remain in their seats until closing at 5:30 p.m.Feb. 6, 1960More than 500 students jam the Woolworth and Kress stores and the sidewalks in downtown Greensboro.Feb. 11, 1960Students participate in sit-ins across the state. Twenty-six William Penn High School students sit at the Woolworth lunch counter on South Main Street in High Point.July 25, 1960F.W. Woolworth agrees to integrate its Greensboro store; four black Woolworth employees — Geneva Tisdale, Susie Morrison, Anetha Jones and Charles Best — are the first to be served.Aug. 28, 1963Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his historic “I Have a Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.196424th Amendment prohibits Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.Martin Luther King Jr., at age 35, receives the Nobel Peace Prize. He gives the prize money to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.Feb. 21, 1965Malcolm X is assassinated while giving a speech in New York City.Aug. 6, 1965The Voting Rights Bill becomes law, nullifying local laws and practices that prevent minorities from voting.May 1-Oct. 1, 1967In the worst summer for racial disturbances in U.S. history, more than 40 riots and 100 other disturbances occur.June 13, 1967President Johnson appoints Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court. He is the first African American on the court.1968Henry Frye becomes the first black person in the 20th century to serve in the N.C. House of Representatives.Elreta Alexander-Ralston becomes the country’s first African American woman to be elected a District Court judge.April 4, 1968Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tenn., where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city.April 11, 1968President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act). The 1968 act expands on previous acts and prohibits discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion or national origin.May 6, 1969Howard Lee is elected mayor of Chapel Hill. He is the first black mayor in a predominantly white city, serving until 1975. (In 2003, Lee becomes the first black chairman of the State Board of Education.)Oct. 29, 1969The Supreme Court (Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education) says segregation must end at once.Feb. 1, 1980Twentieth reunion of the Greensboro Four at Woolworth. They are served by company Vice President Aubrey C. Lewis.State historical marker is unveiled at North Elm Street and West Friendly Avenue.1983Former state Sen. Henry E. Frye is sworn in as associate justice of the N.C. Supreme Court, becoming the first black justice in the court’s 164-year history.Aug. 10, 1989Army Gen. Colin L. Powell becomes the first black chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military post in the nation.1993Melvin “Skip” Alston and Rep. Earl Jones found Sit-in Movement Inc. to renovate and reopen the downtown Woolworth department store as a civil rights museum.1995An 8-foot section of the Woolworth counter and four stools go on permanent display at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History.November 2007Yvonne Johnson is the first African American elected mayor of Greensboro.November 2008Barack Obama is elected president of the United States.Feb. 1, 2010The opening of the International Civil Rights Center & Museum marks the 50th anniversary of the Greensboro Sit-Ins.SourcesNews & Record archive, Britannica Encyclopedia, Truman Library, UNCG Civil Rights Greensboro timeline, Yale School of Education, NAACP

History Assignment

Black Civil Rights "Sit-ins"

Some images

Black Civil Right--Sit ins


1) A timeline of the past.2) A video from 1960 about the Sit-ins3) Photos from far left the friends who started the sit-ins waiting to be served, middle a newspaper from the 1960's about the sit-ins, further right, a poster ecnouraging people to join into what these friends had begun.Far right the chairs from 1960 the exacts chairs that where sat on to begin this revoloution, are now in a museum (they were taken out of the diner).


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