biomass energy

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Environmental Studies

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biomass energy

World ScenarioThe world is facing two energy related threats:• Lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies; and• The environmental damage incurred in producing and consuming ever-increasing amounts of energy.

What is Biomass Energy?Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material

Chemical CompositionBiomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, usually including atoms of oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms, including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals. These metals are often found in functional molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium


Conversion technologiesThere are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly, in the form of heat or electricity, or may convert it to another form, such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options, for others there may only one appropriate technology.1. Thermal conversionThese are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed: •Combustion•Gasification•Pyrolysis2. Chemical conversionA range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself.3. Biochemical conversionAs biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed.Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process:•Anaerobic digestion•Fermentation•Composting

Advantages of Biomass Energy1. No Harmful Emissions 2. Clean Energy 3. Abundant and Renewable 4. Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels 5. Reduce 6. Can be used to Create Different Products Disadvantages of Biomass Energy1. Expensive 2. Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels3. Harmful to Environment 4. Consume More Fuel 5. Require More Land

Key Barriers to Biomass Energy Production1. Technical barriers2. Financial barriers3. Institutional barriers4. Policy barriers

Uses of biomass1. Biomass is attractive for use either as a stand-alone fuel or in fuel blends, such as co-firing wood with coal, or mixing ethanol or biodiesel with conventional petroleum based fuels. 2. Biomass can be burnt (or co-fired) to produce electricity and steam in plant via a steam turbine in dedicated power plants.

Type of Biomass in Malaysia

Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP, OECD, January 2007.

Prepared by:Fatein Azrin Binti Megat Muhamad Amin55201211391Mohd Izwan Bin Mohd Zainuddin55201211035Mohd Afiq Ezami Bin Azmi55201211364Rafiuddin Bin Mohd Yunus55201211325Nur Fadzila Binti Fadzil55201211413


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