Biological Molecules

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Biological Molecules

Nucleic Acids

Biological Molecules




Carbohydrates are made up of 6 carbons. The common formula to remember is CH2O.Monossacharides- glucose, fructose, glacatoseDisaccharides - maltose (glucose+glucose), sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose)Polyssacharides: Starch(plant) and glycogen (animal) are used for storage while chitin (fungi) and cellulose (plant) are used for structure

Lipids are made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains. Monomers are fats which include: - Saturated fats don't have a double bond, are solid at room temperature, and are from animals - Unsaturated fats have a double bond, are liquid at room tempeature, and are from plantsPolymers are fats/oils which provide energy storage, phospholipids which make up the cell membrane, steroids made of 4 cabon rings (include cholesterol for structure and hormones), and waxes which are water proof

Proteins contain an amino group (20 types of amino acids), an R group, and a carboxyl group. They are joined together by a peptide bond, forming polypeptides. Some of the functions that they have in our body include: muscles, messengers, antibodies, enzymes, hair & nails, and protein channelsStructures: Primary, Secondary (alpha helix or beta pleated sheet), Tertiary (based on the R-group), Quatrinary

Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides with a phosphate group, two pentose sugars (ribose or deoxiribose), and five nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uricel). They make up DNA, RNA and ATP. DNA is used as a genetic code, RNA is used for protein synthesis, and ATP is used for energy.

*Note: Monomers are joined together to make polymers through dehydration synthesis. The resultant is a polymer and water. The opposite process is hydrolysis.


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