Biobutanol, the best alternative fuel to Crude Oil! by jengyunicole

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Biobutanol, the best alternative fuel to Crude Oil! by jengyunicole

Disadvantages of biobutanol over crude oil1) In theory, if switching from gasoline to biobutanol the fuel consumption should be around 10% bigger(though there's yet to see have a comprehensive scientific study.2) Crude oil in the form of petrol is readily available (many petrol station – Shell, Esso, Caltex SPC, etc) AS FOR NOW, whereas, biobutanol is not. This is due to the fact that the production of biobutanol is not as abundant that that of crude oil in today’s world.3) Biobutanol is more toxic to humans and animals than gasoline (although some components of gasoline, such as benzene, are more toxic or carcinogenic). Thus, biobutanol may have bad effects on polymers and metals.4) Biobutanol outputs less energy overall as compared to gasoline.

Why biobutanol can effectively replaceCrude Oil?1) Biobutanol has an energy content closer to that of gasoline than the other additive which is commonly used today; namely ethanol.Biobutanol: 105,000 BTUs/gallonEthanol: 84,000 BTUs/gallonGasoline: 114,000 BTUs/gallonHence, consumers face less of a compromise on fuel economy.2) Biobutanol can be easily blended with conventional gasoline at high concentrations for use in unmodified engines / standard vehicle engines / gasoline engines. Experiments have shown that biobutanol can run in an unmodified conventional engine at 100 percent, but to date, no manufacturers will warrant use of blends higher than 15 percent. (Currently biobutanol can blended up to 10%v/v in European gasoline and 11.5%v/v in US gasoline.) Also, it has potential for use in diesel fuel as it can be blended up to 40% with diesel fuel. Hence, Biobutanol need less adjustment in gasoline blendstonks to accommodate it, and is hence well suited to current vehicle and engine technologies.3) Biobutanol is less susceptible to separation in the presence of water, hence allows it to use industry’s existing distribution infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, blending facilities and storage tanks) without requiring modifications or the need for a separate distribution network in blending facilities, storage tanks or retail station pumps. Biobutanol can thus be introduced into gasoline quickly, avoiding the need for additional large-scale supply infrastructure.4) Biobutanol has an energy density and octane values closer to gasoline than the other additive which is commonly used today; namely ethanol and methanol.Energy density of gasoline: 32 megajoules per liter (32MJ/L)Biobutanol: 29.2MJ/LEthanol: 19.6MJ/LMethanol: 16MJ/LHence, there will be no degradation of vehicle fuel economy.5) Biobutanol mimics gasoline in its burning properties when utilized in a gasoline motor.6) While still derived from food crops at this point in time, Biobutanol is nearly as efficient as gasoline.

Biobutanolis what you need!

GLOBAL SITUATION !

L

Disadvantages of biobutanol over crude oil1) In theory, if switching from gasoline to biobutanol the fuel consumption should be around 10% bigger(though there's yet to see have a comprehensive scientific study.2) Crude oil in the form of petrol is readily available (many petrol station – Shell, Esso, Caltex SPC, etc) AS FOR NOW, whereas, biobutanol is not. This is due to the fact that the production of biobutanol is not as abundant that that of crude oil in today’s world.3) Biobutanol is more toxic to humans and animals than gasoline (although some components of gasoline, such as benzene, are more toxic or carcinogenic). Thus, biobutanol may have bad effects on polymers and metals.4) Biobutanol outputs less energy overall as compared to gasoline.

Advantages of biobutanol over crude oil1) Crude oil is non renewable. Since 1900, the world’s consumption of fossil fuels has nearly doubled every 20 years. Fossil fuels are formed millions of years ago beneath the earth’s surface from the decomposed bodies of dead plants and animals. Biobutanol, on the other hand, is an alternative, renewable fuel produced from biomass such as sugar, starch, straw or wood. Hence, its supply will not run out and will be sufficient to satisfy man’s wants. Since the supply of crude oil is foreseen to be in short supply (and insufficient) in the future as man’s fuel needs continue to grow at a fast rate, Biobutanol can solve this problem.2) At the moment, the price of oil products is controlled by political pressure, but will rise rapidly as supplies dwindle. Oil is running out. Although new oil deposits are being discovered every year, the amount does not equal to level of annual consumption. Hence, the price of crude oil will rise, especially if the real cost of its carbon is included. Although biobutanol is not commonly used currently, in 2010, biobutanol developer Cobalt Biofuels opened up its first pilot plant said the company’s fuel, already costs less than the price of petroleum to produce. Moreover, the company hopes to ramp up to commercial scale within two years, with “multiple facilities by 2014”, showing that biobutanol will be going through mass production soon and the price of it might be lower than that of petroleum, which will make it more affordable for the public.3) When an oil deposit has been located, it must be extracted from the earth through oil drilling. Since oil typically resides far below ground, the process is rather complicated. Extracting oil involves many steps and in some cases, special environmental constraints. Moreover, since oil is running out, companies are trying to source for more oil. Yet locating additional oil reserves is an extremely costly ongoing process with no guarantee of success.On the other hand, although there aren't many biobutanol refineries at the moment (as compared to gasoline), the way to manufacture biobutanol is adaptable and cost-effective to existing ethanol technologies / production facilities as it would need only minor modifications (minor changes in fermentation and distillation). Hence, after conversion of plants, the manufacturing of biobutanol will be less complicated and more easily available than crude oil.4) Crude oil contributes a lot to global warming. When oil and gasoline are burned, carbon dioxide, a green house gas which traps heat in the atmosphere, is released into the atmosphere. The average global temperature has been increasing due to the rising carbon dioxide levels. (Burning 100L of petrol emits about 250kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.) This can create a huge change in climate, habitats and temperature, which can seriously affect wildlife and ecosystems around the world. The major issue is the melting ice caps, which lead to the rising of sea levels and flooding in many low-land island. Also, during combustion, sulfur and nitrogen is released and can combine with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These gases form weak acids (sulfuric and nitic acid) when they react with water present in the atmosphere, leading to acid rain, which damages forests and plant life. It also acidifies lakes and ponds, disrupting the ecosystem and killing many species. Also, acid rain corrodes structure made from limestone or marble. Dissolved acid + CaCO3 -> CaO (soluble compound which slowly dissolved away by rainfall) Moreover, incomplete burning is likely, which will lead to greater air pollution and higher emission indexes (suspension particulates SS, SOx, NOx, NO, CO, and tail gas emission temperature) Carbon monoxide if allowed to build up in a confined area can prove to be fatal. It is the most common cause of fatal poisoning in Britain today as it causes the accidental deaths of up to 500 people each year in the USA and a much larger number of sub-lethal poisonings.This contrasts with biobutanol, which reduces emissions, namely hydrocarbons emissions by 95%, carbon monoxide (CO) to 0.01% and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 37%. (Exact values depend upon the engine state of tune.) Furthermore, the bigger use of biobutanol instead of fossil fuels would contribute to overall reduction of greenhouse gases because during the time when the feedstock crops are growing carbon dioxide is captured by plants, and this in the end balances carbon dioxide released when biobutanol is burned.Hence, biobutanol has lesser greenhouse effect than crude oil.5) Biobutanol, unlike crude oil, is good for global farmers as it provides another marketing opportunity for key agricultural products, thus enhancing value to farmers.6) Biobutanol is safer to use than gasoline as a result of its lower vapor pressure (vP)—it is difficult to ignite and it burns slowly. Like diesel, a match has to be held to it for ignition; biobutanol is combustible but not dangerously flammable, whereas gasoline is flammable and potentially explosive.

Works Cited"Bio Butanol Fuel" Clean Future 15th April 2011. 23 April 2012 < http://clean-future.com/renewable-energy/biofuel/bio-butanol-fuel >Sara Helmberger. “Definition and characteristics of Butanol” Rebel. 28 Oct. 2009. Responsible Business. 14 April 2012.Christine and Scott Gable. “Biobutanol.” About.com The New York Times Company. 14 April 2012< http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/thedifferenttypes/a/biobutanol.htm >“Biobutanol fact sheet.” The miracles of science. Beyond Petroleum. 14 April 2012.< http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/STAGING/global_assets/downloads/B/Bio_biobutanol_fact_sheet_jun06.pdf >Himanshu Pandya. “Butanol, an Alternative to Ethanol, Gets a Boost (DD,BP)” Seeking Alpha . 22 June 2006. 14 April 2012.< http://seekingalpha.com/article/12390-butanol-an-alternative-to-ethanol-gets-a-boost-dd-bp >“Transforming chemicals and fuels industries with biotechnology” Green Biologics. 14th April 2012< http://www.butanol.com/ >“Prospectus Biobutanol: The Next Big Biofuel – A Techno-Economic and market Evaluation”. Nexant. January 2009. Chemical Strategies. 15th April 2012< http://www.chemsystems.com/reports/search/docs/prospectus/MC08_Biobutanol_Prospectus.pdf >Aaron T.”Butanol Fuel”. FutureCars.com. 28 July 2011. Auto Repair. 15th April 2012< http://www.futurecars.com/articles/fuels/butanol-fuel >“Product Safety Assessment: n-Butanol”. The Dow Chemical Company. 15th April 2012< http://www.dow.com/productsafety/finder/nbut.htm >Sandra Vase-Sideris, PhD. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Energy Sources”. Southern Polytechnic State University. 15th April 2012< http://homepages.spa.umn.edu/~larry/ADVANTAGE_DIS_ENERGY.pdf >“The World, Including The Middle East, Is Running Out og Crude Oil”. Earths Friends. 7 January 2012. 16th April 2012< http://www.earthsfriends.com/world-middle-east-running-out-crude-oil >“Difference Between Petrol and Diesel Engines.” Santosh Mehta Automibile Engineer. 16th April 2012< http://santoshbmehta.hpage.co.in/differance_between_petrol_and_diesel_engines_59094340.html >“Petroleum and Petroleum Products and Refining Crude Oil” Platts, The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 16th April 2012< http://www.platts.com/MediaCenterDetail/Petroleum,-Petroleum-Products-and-Refining >“Advantages of Chemical Energy” Buzzle.com 16th April 2012< http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-chemical-energy.html >The Oil Drum. “Oil Production in the 21st Century and Peak Oil” Oil Price.com . 27 March 2012. 16th April 2012http://oilprice.com/Energy/Crude-Oil/Oil-Production-in-the-21st-Century-and-Peak-Oil.htmlSheryl Joaquin. “Enery-Petroleum-Crude Oil: Its Uses and Benefits” GO ARTICLES. 17 October 2007 17th April 2012http://goarticles.com/article/Energy-Petroleum-Crude-Oil-Its-Uses-and-Benefits/651190/“Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reducing Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Equipment” Klima Technolody INC 17th April 2012< http://www.comaxima.com.tw/files/ECH-A_en.pdf >“Chemical Datasheet: Crude Oil, Petroleum, [Combustible Liquid Label ]” Cameo Chemicals National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 17th April 2012< http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/11018 >Nigel Saunders “Coal” Creative Chemistry . 2003. 17th April 2012< http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/documents/Module21/N-m21-10.pdf >“Lesson number 20 – Crude Oil and its Products” Science-Interative. 2005. 18th April 2012< http://www.science-interactive.co.uk/website%20content%2007/pdf%20gcse%20powerpoint%20lessons/Unit%2020%20Crude%20Oil%20and%20its%20Products.pdf >Chris Jent “How is Oil Extracted From The Ground?: Triple Diamond Energy” Articles of Advice 4 September 2008. 18th April 2012< http://www.articlesofadvice.com/articles/15/1/How-Is-Oil-Extracted-From-The-Ground-Triple-Diamond-Energy/Page1.html >“Fossil Fuels: Their Advantages and Disadvantages” Alternative Energy Secret. 18th April 2012< http://www.alternativeenergysecret.com/fossil-fuels.html >“The Disadvantages of Oil” Fossil Fuel Resources . 18th April 2012< http://fossil-fuel.co.uk/oil/the-disadvantages-of-oil >“The Disadvantages of Oil” Fossil Fuel. 19 April 2012.

running out of oil!Even the Middle East stockpiling some of the largest crude oil reserves in the world, will

CRUDE OIL

FEAR NOT!

IT'S TIME WE FIND AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL!

AND THE DAY IS NEAR..

eventually run out..

rapidly

The world is

i

B

b

u

t

o

a

the

situation

solve

Choose biobutanol!It's a fuel. It can supply us with energy.& it's environmentally friendly!!

BIOBUTANOL

VS

there are disadvantages,

THOUGH

can

The world consumption of petroleum each day is increasing, but crude oil is insufficient to satisfy our needs.

Fossil fuels such as oil take billions of years to form.

Oil prices too high?Squeezing in a public transport?Can't afford to own a car?No more holiday overseas?No air-conditioning?No plastic, no chemicals?

LACK OF OIL?

o

n


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