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Social Studies

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Behaviorism refers to the shared perspective that presumes the learner adopts a passive role in learning through his or her responses to environmental stimuli. The learner begins with no knowledge and the behaviour is subsequently learned by positive or negative reinforcement.

Types of ActivitiesActivities in behaviorism revolves around reinforcements, namely positive and negative. Positive reinforcement introduces a stimulus to ensure that a particular action is to be repeated again, while negative reinforcement involves the withdrawal of a stimulus to ensure certain actions are to be avoided in the future to come. Hence, these activities come in the form of reward and punishments. Additionally, these activities will involve repentance to ensure that a complicated task will be synthesized into an easy task, via the means of step-by-step process.

Role of TeachersFor the role of teachers, they have to keep a balance between a few factors to ensure that the their learners attain the best knowledge by their methods. These factors include age of learner, the general learning ability of learners, gender of the learners, as well as the pace of the learning process. Historically, it is believed that positive reinforcement is more effective than achieving learning objectives than negative reinforcements. However in certain cases, this may vary between the nature and character of learners.

Role of LearnerThe role of the learner under the behaviourism theory is to respond to the reinforcement from environmental stimuli. In the classroom, student can learn to pace their progress when attempting assignments by working upwards, starting from basic concepts and then towards progressively more complicated concepts. Furthermore, the student should actively request for clarity in instructions or more direct feedback so as to supplement his learning.


Major Contributors:- Ivan Pavlov- John B. Watson- Skinner


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