Battle of the Plains of Abraham

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
American History
Grade:
7

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Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Battle Of The Plains Of Abraham

Consequences of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and how it Effected Various Groups

Outcome of the Battle

Events Leading Up to the Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Groups Involved in the Battle

The groups involved in the battle were the British, the French, and the First Nations.

In June 1755, the British attacked and captured two French ships carrying troops. The French wanted their ships returned, but Britain refused, and war was declared. This would be the start of the Seven Years War. British Prime Minister William Pitt decided to make a stronger effort after being kept at bay for a while. He sent 50 000 troops to North America to try to capture Louisbourg and Quebec. Louisberg guarded the entrance to Quebec so it had to be taken first. In June 1758, 160 British warships began bombarding the French fortress. Their ships cut of all lines for reinforcements. After seven weeks, the French gave up and surrendered. After the attack of Louisbourg, Major-General James Wolfe led a fleet of 200 ships carrying 9 000 soldiers down the St. Lawerence River. The line of ships shretched 150 kilometres down the river. The battle took 3 months. The French commander was Marquis de Montcalm. He had 16 000 troops, Odawa allies, and a stone fortress. If the French could hold out untill winter Wolfe would have to retreat before the river froze. Wolfe bombarded the fortress with cannon fire and attacked the countryside. He was trying to draw the French out into an open battle. Montcalm decided to wait. He did not release his army to fight.

Wolfe became desperate to capture Quebec. He dicided to scale the cliffs on a high clifftop to get to a farmer's field known as the Plains of Abraham. In the middle of the night British soldiers landed from boats and started to scale the cliffs. Only 30 French were guarding the cliff. A French then said "Who goes there?" A British soldier replied in perfect French, "Provisions from Montreal." With blows to the head, the attack began. By morning, 4400 British soldiers we on the top of the cliff. Montcalm sent out his troops. At ten o'clock in the morning, the French army and Odawa allies advanced. Wolfe ordered his soldiers to fire. When the British charged, the French retreated into the town.

When the battle was over, General Wolfe, General Montcalm, and 1300 other soldiers died on the Plains of Abraham. Quebec was handed over to the British. After the war, resisdents of Canada were worried for their future. The First Nations made peace with the British but they feared that they would be taken over by people who wanted land. Acadians were allowed to return to Nova Scotia, but they worried for their languge and religon because of a flood English-speaking settlers arrived in the area. The Canadiens worried that the British might expel them as they did to the Acadians, and if they were allowed to stay, would they be allowed to keep their language and religion. The British were also worried because they now governed and ruled a colony with 70 000 Canadiens who spoke a different language, and were used to a different government and laws.

The Odawa, who were allies with the French, helped them, and fought beside them in battle.

- Montcalm believed that he was safe inside the stone fortress.- The French could fire down on their enemy.- Reinforcements were coming from Monteal.- Montcalm did not know how close the French fleet was at the time.

- Wolfe faced a well-defended fortress on a high cliff.- The British could not get their soldiers behind the fortress to cut off its supplies.- The French fleet was on its way.- The British only had a few weeks before the river froze and they would have to leave.

Marquis de Montcalm1712-1759

James Wolfe1727-1759


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