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James ChadwickIn 1932, Chadwick made a fundamental discovery in the domain of nuclear science: he proved the existence of neutrons - elementary particles devoid of any electrical charge. In contrast with the helium nuclei which are charged, and repelled by the electrical forces present in the nuclei of heavy atoms. This new tool can overcome any electric barrier and is capable of penetrating and splitting the nuclei of even the heaviest elements. Chadwick prepared the way towards the fission of uranium 235 and towards the creation of the atomic bomb.

John DaltonJohn Dalton proposed that all matter is composed of very small things which he called atoms. Dalton's experiments on gases led to his discovery that the total pressure of a mixture of gases amounted to the sum of the partial pressures that each individual gas exerted while occupying the same space. Then in 1803 this principle came to be known as Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. Dalton's Law primarily applies to ideal gases rather than real gases, due to the elasticity and low particle volume of molecules in ideal gases.


ElectronsAn electron is a tiny particle with a mass of 9.108 X 10-28g and a negative charge. The experiments that proved its existence were studies of the properties of matter in gas-discharge or cathode-ray tubes.

ProtonsThe mass of a proton is 1.6726 X 10-24g, or about 1836 times the mass of an electron. The proton carries a positive electrical charge that is equal in magnitude to the charge of the electron but opposite in sign.

Cathode-ray Tube

Neutrons A neutron carries no charge. Its mass is 1.675 X 10-24g.


HeliumNASA space programs use the gas from helium to fuel their shuttles, also the liquid fuels are volatile. They are packed with corrosive material that could destroy a spacecraft’s casing. To avoid this problem, a craft is filled with helium gas. Helium is not flammable. One of the more interesting uses of helium is in cryogenics. This field is concerned with low temperature phenomena and its production. Most of the helium produced today is used for cryogenics. Cryogenics are the branch of physics dealing with the production and effects of very low temperatures.

CarbonCarbon is extracted from Coal deposits. Combining carbon with titanium, boron, tungsten or silicon creates hard compounds. Hard compounds are used to produce grinding or cutting tools. Another use of Carbon is that it can be used in medicine's to take out poisons, gases and toxins.



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