Atomic structure project pt. 1

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Atomic structure project pt. 1

Democritus, one of the first scientists to come up with the idea of the atom, is still talked about today. He is considered by name the “Father of Modern Science”. His idea was that is you kept breaking something into smaller and smaller pieces that it would eventually not be able to get any smaller, thus the idea of the atom came about. He also claimed that atoms were physically indivisible and in between atoms there was just empty space. Many of these ideas created the structure for latr scientists to grow on. One of his most famous ideas was that the shape of the atom corresponded with the solidness of the material that made it up. Had Democritus not come up with these ideas, we may have not known anything about the atom today.

Democritus(greek era)

John Dalton was one of the most influential men in atomic structure history. Though he started as a english school teacher, he later evolved to science and came up with the first atomic theory. The four main points of this theory were 1) Atoms are tiny invisible particles, 2) Atoms of one element are all the same, 3) Atoms of different elements are different, and 4) Compunds are made up of combined atoms. According to him atoms were tiny, solid balls. Calculating atomic mass consisted of using percent compositions of compounds, no one else of his time has come up with ideas like this. He will forever be one of the faces of the atomic structure.

Dmitri Mendeleev came up with one of the most important discoveries of the century. At the beginning of his career he stared with writing the book “The Principles of Chemistry”. From there he connected information and came up with the periodic law, which he then used to create the first periodic table of elements. This table consisted of dozens of known elements and propoerties of unknown elements in a grid like pattern. Not only this but he also discovered three new elements. Due ton his outstanding achievements and discoveries he recieved awards from Cambridge, Oxford and the Royal Society of London. His periodic table is still used by some today, this alone shows the sheer importance of these discoveries.

Sir William Crookes had many achievements of his time. One of his first discoveries was Thallium. While emasuring this element he discovered some irrugularities in his measureents and developed the Radiometer to help him. ALong with this invention he also invited the Spinthariscope, which studied alpha partices. Tubes that were used with this invention are still used today and referred to as the Crookes Tubes. Not only did Crookes figures out these outstadingfacts, he also did extensive research on electrons and vacuums, figruing out that electrons have different states while in vacuums.

J.J. Thomson discovered electrons. He was also the first person to show that atoms are made up of even smaller particles. He first proposed the idea that there was existence of a positive charged electron. His atomic model was mainly known as the "Chocolate chip cookie model". He main thought was that atoms were mostly made up of positively charged electrons. He did many different studies on Electons and what atoms were made up of. He is the main reason we know there are smaller things than atoms. Thanks to him we can now conduct studies on Protons Neutrons and Electrons.

Rutherford goes hand in hand with J.J Thomson. He is who discovered protons and the nucleus. He showed the positviely charged electrons in the center, which hold mostly empty space. He came up with the name for the positive atoms, protons. He also named the center of the atom the nucleus, which peole still use today along with proton. In his various experiments he mainly used the radioactive material and the gold foil beam of proton alpha particles which bounces the beams everywhere and show that atoms are clumped in the middle, the nucleus.

Nagaoka is the man who came up with the Planetary model that claimed the charged center is surrounded by revolving electrons on rings. He rejected Thomson model and created this one. He claimed that there was a big atomic center and used analogies with the planets to help explain his theories. Not only that but he also was successful in creating a milligram of gold and some platinum from just mecury. Nagaoka was a man of many talents and was prosperoous in many feilds. He was the first ever to talk about meteor burst communications. All of these unique discoveries put him on many scinetific radars.

Abegg came up with many differnce advances in atomic structure. He came up with the theory that the differnce of the maximum positive and negative valence of an element is 8, which became known as Abegg Rule. He also discovered that the lowest and highest "oxidation states" of elements differs by 8 aswell. Along with these developments he said that elements were less likely to combine into molecules and that stable elements were called electron shells. Not only was he developed in this department he concluded about freezing point depression. All of these conclusions have evolved modern day science into what it is today.

Geiger was a man who not only made discoveries on him own, he also worked with fellow physists. He started out by working with Ernest Rutherford and together they discovered that two alpha particles are released with Uranium is disintegrated. Many different advancements were named after Geiger such as the Geiger-Mardson experiment which discovered the atomic nucleaus, or the Geiger counter which was a machine that counted emitted alpha particles. Many of his works he shared with others such as the Geiger-Nuttall Law which showed that radioactive atoms emit alpha particles at high speeds. All of these discoveries have shown that Geiger could work with others well and had a good understanding of the atoms structure for his time.

Not only did Millikan back up other scientists theories, he created some for himself as well. He first verified Einsteins photoelectric equation. Then he went on to acurately determine the charge of an electron by using the "Falling Drop method". After this he proved that the quantity was the same for all electrons. He extended the Ultra Violet Spectrum past the known limit, shocking everyone of of his time. He extended his services to other fields by discovering a specific law of motion and cosmic radiation.

Rutherford (1898)

John Dalton (1803)

Nagaoka (1903)

Dmitri Mendeleev(1869)


Sir William Crookes (1879)

J.J Thomson (1897)

Hans Geiger (1906)

R.A. Millikan (1909)


Atomic Structure Project PT. 1


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