by MommyJen
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Chapter 5 Overview:~formative assessment monitors student learning while in progress~summative assessment evaluates after teaching is complete~Assessment options include paper-and-pencil, oral, portfolios, and interviews.~Assessments should acconunt for time and level of difficulty per task.

Chapter 8 Overview:~Constructed response assessments require students to show their work.~Restricted response assessments limit students' answers.~Extended response assessments require students to express their own ideas.~Higher-order thinking skills are necessary for good essay questions.~Assessment can be used to motivate students to study.

Chapter 7 Overview:~Types of assessment items include short-answer, true-false, matching, and multiple choice.~Short-answer should be written as questions, have one or two blanks that are the same length, and have brief answers.~True-false should be definite and avoid repetition.~Matching should have homogeneous, short responses.~Multiple-choice should have one best answer, avoid "all/none of the above", have distractors, use simple vocabulary.

Chapter 2 Overview:~Principles of Validation: interpretations, uses, values, & consequences~Good assessments evaluate student thinking, are fair to all students, and are easy to use.~Assessments should result in student learning.~Match assessment difficulty to students' ability levels.Provide opportunities for self-evaluation.

Chapter 9 Overview:~Performance assessment is best for processes or projects.~Performance assessments have clear rubrics and require integration of knowledge.~Alternative assessments oppose standardized achievement tests.~Authentic assessment provides tasks that are directly meaningful to education.To provide well-aligned tasks,teachers should account for time required, task structure, group participation, product and performance focus, and performance modality.

Chapter 3 Overview:~Learning objectives focus on "where you're going".~Learning targets fall into various categories of Bloom's Taxonomy, including knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, syntheses, or evaluation.~Learning targets should be student-, performance-, and content-centered, and should be aligned with both instruction and assessment.

Chapter 11 Overview:~Grading is used to communicate information about student achievement.~Student progress can be reported through letter, number, or percentage grades, checklist scales, student-teacher or parent-teacher conferences, and letters to parents.~Criterion-referenced grading is most meaningfully connected to learning targets.~Scoring "failure" describes students who fail to achieve learning targets.~Scoring "failure to try" describes students who choose to fail.

Chapter 6 Overview:~Formative assessment should be student-centered, beginning with the teacher's vision.~Formative assessment provides cognitive and motivational benefits.~Feedback is essential for students in good formative assessments.

Chapter 10 Overview:~Rubrics can be analytic (evaluates elements), holistic (reuquires judgement of quality), generic (scoring is applied to many tasks), or task-specific (specific assignments).~Checklists include three areas: behavior, product (quality), and procedure (were appropriate steps followed).~Point-based scoring is best for essays and "show your work" assessments.

Chapter 1 Overview:~review of assessment terms, purposes, and types~helps students understand what is expected of them for learning~provides information regarding high stakes testing for those in decision-making positions~assessments: reliable and valid~assessments should be scored, interpreted, and communicated~students have the responsibility to prepare accordingly

Chapter 4 Overview:~review of strategies necessary for problem-solving~review of strategies necessary to develop critical thinking skills~Using "novel" material is crucial for assessing higher-order thinking.

An overview of the concepts of "Assessment and Grading in Classrooms" by Susan Brookhart & Anthony Nitko and its impact on assessment in Mrs. Hayes' math classroom

Brookhart, S, & Nitko, A. (2008). "Assessment and grading in classrooms." Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.,.

Chapter 12 Overview:~review of types of standardized tests~review of ways to use standardized test scores within and outside the classroom~review of ways to prepare students for standardized testing~Encourages teachers to use standardized test scores to determine class standing, student growth, areas of improvement, strengths, and intelligence levels.

Impact #3: I will provide more opportunities for self-evaluation for my students, encouraging students to learn from their mistakes.

Impact #2: I will attempt to incorporate more activities that are graded based on rubrics.

Impact #1: I will vary the types of assessment that I use in my classes, focusing on summative and formative assessments.

Brookhart is the Senior Research Associate at the Cneter for Advancing the Study of Teaching and Learning in the School of Education at Duquesne University. Nitko is the adjunct professor of the Dept. of Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona, as well as professor emeritus and former chairperson of the Dept. of Psychology in Education at the University of Pittsburgh.



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