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Apartheid

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Apartheid

APARTHEID

How It Started?-It started in 1948 when the White Supremascist won the most in South Africa's general election. After they won they started passing many acts to segregate South Africa. Though this really started when the Dutch first colonized South Africa in 1652. Right after South Africa became a free state in 1910 they immediately started passing segregation acts.

-The ANC.The African National Congress was the main opposition against Apartheid in their country. In the 20 and 30's they were known to be reform minded until the younger generation got impatient. The ANC were led by lawyers from Johannesburg. They were Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, and Walter Sislulu.

-What aparteid means and how it came about.Apartheid means apartness in Afrikkans,and became the official name of racial segregation in South Africa after the World War II. The term came from Afrikaners in the 1930's.

-What the ANC Did?The ANC began its protest against apartheid in 1952. In which they urged followers to to carry their passes. In 1955 they partnered up with other opposition groups to sign a new race blind constitution called the Fredom Charter. But the goverment split the movement, so Mandela founded the Umkhonto we Sizwe,or the sprear of nations, to carry out guerilla raids. By 1963 most of the ANC's leaders were imprisoned.

-The Change.In the 1970s change began to take place in South Africa. In the 60s the goverment had practically completely silenced the ANC, but in the early 70s the protest was revived when schoolchildren went to Soweto in 1976 to protest educational policies. During the protest police began to take fire killing and wounding thousands of people and the incident became known as the Soweto Massacre. This event caused the goverment to ease tensions. Then between 1976 and 1980 neighboring countries began to end thier segregation. This was very key because the countries began to support the ANC.

- The end & the new begining.By the end of the 70's the goverment considered cosmetic reform by allowing them partial representation in parliment. This was boycotted and in 1985 economic sanction was imposed on South Africa. In 1989 Botha was forced to retire due to health and so Frederik de Klerk took over. He started dismantling aaprtheid and started working with the ANC and released several of its leaders. Mandela became the new ANC's leader and over the next couple of years they created a new constitution. Then in 1994 Nelson Mandela became the new president of South Africa.

Citation"apartheid." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 18 Jan. 2012


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