AP Biology

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AP Biology

AP Biology

They repeated Griffith's experiment except they added specific fractions of S cells. The results were that only DNA transformed R cells into the S cells. Even though they did this experiment, neither their experiment nor results were believed because they didn't have enough evidence to support what they had found.

Used genetic information of a virus also known as phage. Phage is a virus that attacks bacteria and reprograms host to produce more viruses. The two main chemicals in phage is protein and DNA. The experiment was using phage labeled with one tracer and then the other to see which tracer entered the bacteria cell. The result of this was that the DNA entered the host cell but the protein did not. This entire experiment showed that the DNA was the genetic material and there was a picture to prove the whole thing.


Avery, McMcarty & MacLeod(1944)

Griffith Experiment(1928)

Griffith injected mice with two strains of pneumonia. The S strand, which is the pathogenic strand, and then the R strand, which is the harmless strand.. There was a transformation, the assimilation of external genetic material by a cell, which turned the R cells into the S cells becoming dangerous and killing the mice. The problem was that Griffith used heat which denatres protiens and DNA is the heat stable. This caused the R cells to stay R cells and not turn into S cells and kill the mice overtime.

Chapter 16-Molecular Basis of Inheritance

DNA Composition-Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate and nitrogen bases which includespurines and pyrimidines.

The DNA backbone is the polymer of sugar phosphate. Nitrogen bases bridge the backbone together. There is a constant distance between the two backbones and are held together by H-bonds.

Replication is the process of making more DNA from the DNA already given. When the cells are being replicated, the genome must also be copied the exact same way or else there could end up being some issues as far as health and medically.

There are origins of replication which are sites on the DNA molecule which ends up starting the whole replication process. These origins are recognized by a specific DNA base sequence. There is also DNA elongation which is when there is added DNA triphosphate monomers to the growing replication strand.

There are certain models for DNA replication. There is the conservative, which has one old strand and one new strand of DNA. Another one is semiconservative, which has each strand that is half old and half new. The last one is despersive, which have strands that are mixtures of old and new.


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