AP Bio 12/13/13 (BIOLOGY)

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AP Bio 12/13/13 (BIOLOGY)

Prokaryotic Cells1) Genetic material is not membrane bound, there is no true nucleus, only a nucleoid.2) Metabolic processes take place in the cell membrane, not in cholorplasts or mitochondrian.3) Cell walls are made of peptidoglycan.4) Prokaryotes are much smaller than eukaryotes.5) Prokaryotes contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in the nucleoid.6) Prokaryotes have a larger surface area to volume ratio, higher metabolic rate, higher growth rate, and a shorter generation time than Eukaryotes.7) Prokaryotes have compact genomes.8) Nearly all of the prokaryote genomes code or control something in the cell.9) Prokaryote genes are also expressed in groups (operons), while eukaryotes are expressed individually.10) All genes in an operon are transcribed on the same piece of RNA and then made into separate proteins.11) Prokaryotic cells have bacterial flagellum, unlike eukaryotic cells, helping cells move through fluid habitats, like the body fluids of their host animals.13) Prokaryotic cells also have pili, which are protein filaments the help a cell cling to surfaces as well as transfer genetic material to other cells to create more prokaryotes.14) The most prominant prokaryotes are bacteria and archaea.15) Prokaryotes may have the following; bacterial flagellum, pilus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm with ribosomes, and DNA in the nucleoid region. Prokaryotes are a lot less complex when compared to eukaryotes as they do not contain membrane-bound organelles or a nuclues to store DNA.

AP Biology

Weekend Assignment 12/13/13

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic

1) Eukaryotes are cells that have complex structures such as internal membranes and a cytoskelton.2) Found in animals, plants, fungi and protists. 3) Unlike prokaryotes, eukaryotes have a nucleus to store DNA.4) Eukaryotes have choloropasts and mitochondria for metabolic processes.5) Eukaryotes are much larger than Prokaryotes.6) Eukaryote DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes in the nucleus.7) Genes are expressed individually.8) A Eukaryote may contain the following organelles; cell wall, cholorplast, central vacuole, nucleus, ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, lysosome-like vesicles, plasma membrane, plasmodesma, mitochondrion, crytoskeltons, centrioles, and lysosomes. Eukaryotes are much more complex than prokaryotes as they contain membrane bound organelles. It is believed eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes originally, adapting to their surroundings.

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