Ancient Rome

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Social Studies
Ancient History

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Ancient Rome

Justinian, c.482-565: On August 1, 575 C.E Justinian became emperor of Rome. Justinian build many things such as aqueducts, bridges, monasteries, orphanages, hotels, and the Hagia Sophia.

Ancient Rome

This vase was found in Italy, probably from around about AD 5-25 (during Roman Empire). The British Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. .

The Roman economy was based on agriculture and slavery. Producing staples such as olives, grapes, and grain was the primary concern of farmers and farm workers. Excess crops were given to the government as a form of taxation. The largest industry in Rome was the mining industry, where workers mined silver and gold to be made into coins, such as the one pictured above. The sizes and shapes of coins were very strictly standardized, which made trading much easier. Coins like this have been found in India, China, Africa, and Germany, indicating the Roman’s widespread trading routes.

The earliest Romans worshipped many gods, called numina, particularly household spirits that were said to preside over the house. The family would offer a dish of food to the Gods in a shrine. Later, through interaction with the Greeks, the Romans combined their own pantheistic religion with that of the Greeks, and incorporated the Greek Gods into their religion, changing only their names. The pantheon, shown above, is a temple built to worship the many Roman Gods, such as Jupiter, Vesta, Janus, Mercury, and Venus. Later in the empire, emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and Christianity became the dominant religion in Rome, rejecting the centuries-old pantheistic system.

Citation (information): United Nations of Roman Victrix., n.d. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. . Citation (picture): Roman Imperial Coin of Marcus Aurelius. 30 Apr. 2011. Photograph. Tantalus Coin Registry. S/M 39337. .

Citation (information): McGill, Sara Ann. "Ancient Roman Religion." Ancient Roman Religion (2009): 1-2. History Reference Center. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. .Citation (picture): Mukhtar, Ahsan. "10 Most Beautiful Ancient Buildings in the World." Listphobia. Listphobia, 2012. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. .

Slaves, often prisoners of war, were the basis of Rome’s workforce. They farmed, mined, assisted in infrastructure projects, and tended to members of their owners’ household (as shown above). Masters were often very fond of their slaves, especially house slaves, and treated them fairly well. They believed that treating a slave well would lead to better quality of work. While it was difficult to do so, slaves had the possibility of working to pay their masters back however much it cost to purchase them, so slaves did have incentive to work hard. The child of a slave automatically became a slave. (Citation (info and picture): Trueman, Chris. "Roman Slaves." History Learning Site., 2013. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. . )

Citation: Raia, Ann R., and Judith L. Sebesta. "THE WORLD OF MARRIAGE." Online Companion: Marriage. VRoma Project's Image Archive, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.

This scuplutre of a marriage ceromony helps to illustrate the varying role of men and women in Ancient Rome. Women in Rome were not conidered citizens; they could not vote or hold office. Marrying young and becoming a wife was essentially the only option. Sometimes, they managed to influence their by swaying the opinion of their husbands, who did have the ability to vote Marriage is typically arranged for political reasons. However, after the first century, women earned more rights regarding marriage laws. As long as she didn't marry "in manu" she could inherit, own and sell property.

Constantine(February 27 ad 280- May 22, 337): Maxentius son of Maximian rebelled against Rome, starting a complex series of civil wars. In 312 Rome invaded Italy after a lightning campaign defeated his brother-in-law Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge near Rome. He abolished the penalty of crucifixion and the practice of branding certain criminals. Constantine devoted his life and office to the spreading of Christianity.

Augustus ( c.62 BC – 14 AD): His father died when he was only four years old, Julius Caesar his great uncle needed an heir to his dictatorship so he adopted Augustus. After the death of Caesar Augustus had made an alliance with Marc Antony, a successful and ambitious general, where they defeated their enemies in Rome. With the killing over with Augustus took Rome and Antony keep Egypt. Antony feel in love with Cleopatra, but before they could attack Rome Augustus attacked first. The battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E destroyed ¾ of the Egyptian fleet. At the age of 32, Augustus had finally become the first Emperor of Rome. During his reign he divorced his wife and married his mistress Livia. He ended 100 years of civil war and achieved over 40 years of peace and prosperity. After his death the senate declared his stepson Tiberius emperor of Rome.

Ancient Rome was a pioneer when it came to technological innovation. The construction of archs and concrete --a mix of llime powder, sand, and water-- helped give way to the Aqueducts. These long constrcutions helped to carry water from a source to an urban center, by only using the force of gravity. Also, they could either be built underground or elevated (see above). The invention of concrete also aided in the creaion of large interior rooms.

Patron/Client relationship: bounded together individuals and families. Men of power would have clients whom they provided legal advice,physical protection, and loans in tough times. In return the client was expected to follow him into battle, support in political arena, work on his land, and even contribute toward the dowry of his daughter.

Third century crisis”: period from 235 B.C.E to 284 C.E when political, military, and economic problems beset and nearly destroyed the Roman Empire.

Roman Republic: NOT a democracy. Lasted from 507-31 B.C.E.

Roman Principate: during 31 B.C.E - 330 C.E followed the Roman Republic. Period in Which Octavian (63 B.C.E – 14 C.E) “first among equals” was in a way dictator of Rome.

Pax romana: (“roman peace”), the safety and stability guaranteed by Roman might.

Roman State: advisory council, first to the kings and later to the annually changing Republican officials.

Romanization: The spread of the Latin language and Roman way of life. This was the most enduring consequence of the empire, primarily in the wesern provinces.


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