Ancient India

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Ancient India

Ancient India"Jewel in the Crown"

Jessie Li, Kate Liu, Anna Grace Kolodny

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Eastern and Western GhatsTwo ranges running roughly parallel to the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea coasts form the eastern and western edges of the Deccan Plateau and the Indian Peninsula, respectively. In the Hindi language the term ghats refers specifically to “river landing stairs” or “mountain pass.” Sparse forests containing valuable timber and numerous streams by which the ghats are dissected lie within the mountains’ slopes, ranging from approximately 2,000 to 9,000 feet in elevation. Source:http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Ghats.aspx

Brahmaptura RiverThe Brahmaptura River is a major river of central and South Asia. IT is 1,800 miles long, flowing from its source in the Himalayas to the Ganges rivers.The waters of the Ganges and Brahmaputra then flow together and empty into the Bay of Bengal.The river itself passes through the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, the Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Bangladesh. Most of the river serves as an important inland waterway, though it is not used for transportation as it is not navigable between the mountains of Tibet and plains of India. The river is both a creator and a destroyer in its lower course, where it deposits huge quantities of fertile alluvial soil, but has also disastrous and frequent floods. It's source is the Chemayungdung Glacier, covering the slopes of the Himalayas around 60 miles southeast of Lake Mapam in southern Tibet.Source:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/77154/Brahmaputra-River

Ancient BuddhismThe Story Of Buddha, The Birth and The Royal Life: A long time ago there was a king named Suddhodana and queen Mahamaya, in sixth century B.C.. They lived in the city of Kapilavastu. The queen was in her palace one day and she had a dream. The dream was that there was a white elephant carrying a white lotus with trunk and went right beside her. Later after that dream she had a baby born named Siddhartha Gautama. There was a group of astrologers that had predicted he would grow up to be a great prince, emperor, turn back on his power or be a spiritual leader. During the childhood of the prince he grew up in a palace so he did not have much knowing or knowing of the outside world. When he was older he married princess Yashodhara. During their marriage they had a son named Rahula. He had a great childhood because they were very wealthy and powerful. One day the prince finally wanted to go see the town so his father got rid of all old and sick people for that time and he was allowed, The prince did not know that he did that. He went to the city a few times and he just lived his wealthy life with his family for the time being.Source:http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/buddha/story/sto_set.htmlBuddha's Experience as an Ascetic; The Transformation of Buddha and the Eightfold Path: Siddattha refrained himself of worldly pleasures, suffering under extreme (physical) conditions by which he believed that his soul may be purified and thus obtain a greater connection with the Divine or inner peace. This may take the form of self-mortification, rituals or harsh renunciations of pleasure. However, he maintained that self-imposed constraints bring him greater freedom in various areas of their lives (especially of the mind), such as an increased ability to think clearly and resist potentially destructive short term impulses. According to Siddattha, meditation was essential to achieving nirvana, concentrating on the idea of impermanence and change. As a result Siddattha fasted, strictly for six years. He was left on the verge of death and overwhelmed by the end of this time, but he had replenished himself for he had discovered that the causing of unecessary harships physically would not, in fact, resolve the problem of suffering, nor poverty. Siddattha then vowed to follow the Middle Way; he would neither indulge in luxuries nor subject himself to the extremes. Subsequently, Siddattha remained at Bodh Gaya, meditating deeply for the days that followed. Dawn broke one day, and was enlightened, and he had achieved nirvana, having been freed from suffering; he was then called the Buddha, for the meaning of all things were revealed to him, and he was enlightened. The Eightfold Path (also known as the "Middloe Way") taught one to overcome the desires and attachments of the world, as they were believed to cause suffering; to follow the Eightfold Path was the fourth of the Notable Truths. Source:http://www.aboutbuddha.org/english/life-of-buddha-4.htm/http://www.buddhamind.info/leftside/under/buddha/enlight.htm

Ancient HinduismOrigins of Hinduism Hinduism is a collective term applied to the many philosophical and religious traditions native to India, possessing neither a specific moment of origin nor a specific founder; the tradition understands itself to be timeless, having always existed. Nevertheless, Hinduism was formed in 2000 B.C.E (of Indian origin). Complex tradition encompasses numerous interrelated religious teachings and practices that are similar but lack any unified system of beliefs and practices.http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism.htlm Caste Systems A hierarchical system in which the people of the Hindu religion are segregated according to one’s status, from which occupations (hereditary) are determined. Four categories are present in thre system: the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. The "Untouched," those who performed the least desirable activites were isolated, and lived as outcasts.http://www.mrdowling.com/612-caste.htmlBeliefs and Deities- Hinduism is polytheistic religion, in which Hindus believe in an large unifying force that governs all existence and cannot be completely known by humanity - individual gods and goddesses are personifications of this force.Each Hindu worships those few deities that he or she believes directly influences their lives. By choosing one or two deities to worship and by doing rituals that facilitate contact with them, a Hindu strives to experience his or her unity with that cosmic force. The three primary Hindu deities are Shiva, Vishnu and Devi. Shiva is the Creator and the Destroyer, he destroys the old and creates the new. Vishnu is the preserver, his two most popular incarnations are Krishna and Rama.Devi is the Protecting Mother; she is sometimes known simply as the Goddess, who appears in every region of India. She is often known as the creative energy of the universe.https://www.asia.si.edu/pujaonline/puja/basic_beliefs.htmlDharma and Karma Karma Karma is the belief that a person’s actions in life will determine their fate in the next life. If a person is kind and selfless in this life, they’ll be rewarded in the next life. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. DharmaDharma is very important to Hindu faith, as it is the moral force that orders the universe, the power that keeps the world in motion. It is maintained through personal duty, and it’s up to humans to do their part to keep the world operating smoothly.http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-hindu-belief-system-darma-karma-and-moksha.html

Deccan Plateau The Deccan is located in Central India that includes inland sections of the states Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka; it is located east of the Western Ghats, and west of the Eastern Ghats, making up most of central and southern India. A more restricted definition limits the Deccan Plateau to the high tableland between the Narbada and Krishna Rivers. The Deccan Plateau’s name comes from the Sanskrits daksina meaning “South.” Remnants of lava beds are to be found, and some crops that can be found on the Deccan Plateau are millet, oil seeds, wheat and cotton.There are tea and coffee plantations towards the south of the Deccan Plateau additionally. Source:http://www.deccanplateau.net/

Himalayas The Himalayas make a barrier and wall between the Plateau of Tibet and the alluvial plains in the south. The system emcompasses the highest mountains in the world, with more than 110 peaks rising to elevation of 24,000 feet. The peak of Mount Everest, the world's highest, is located her with an apex of 29,035 feet, Due to the immese elevation, the peaks in the Himalayas have a lot of snow.Source:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266037/Himalayas

Ganges River The Ganges River can be referred to as India’s holy river of Hinduism. It is located in the subcontinent of Northern India, and has a big, wide, and muddy stream (sluggish). The total length of the Ganges River is 1,560miles or 2,510 km. However, compared to other rivers in Asia, this river would be considered rather short.Source:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/225359/Ganges-River

a.) Who are the people of the Ancient Indus River Valley? (Answered in video)b.) What was daily life like for them?(Answered in video)c.) Who invaded them? The Aryans, a taller, lighter (in skin tone) people. d.) Where did the invaders come from? Prior to the migration to Iran and eventually India, the Aryans were believed to be from Eastern Europe and Central Asia.e.) Why did the invadors migrate? The invaders migrated because they were fierce warlike people and they felt like they would conquer and they settled their lands and could be harsh and were there over 500 years.f.) Describe the different social classes of the Aryans. The Aryans were dissected into three classes, by which their role in the society was determined: Brahmins (Aryan priests, philosophers, scholars); Kshatriyas (Aryan rulers and warriors); and the Vaishyas (Aryan farmers, traders, merchants, and craftsmen). Those who were not of Aryan nationality (non-Aryan laborers, peasants, and servants) formed the fourth and lowest group, the Shudras. The Untouchables, a social group outside of the caste system included the outcasts, as they performed the least desirable of all activites.Sources:- https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-i-ancient-1600-textbook/civilization-and-empires-in-the-indian-subcontinent-4/the-indo-european-migrations-and-early-aryan-india-c-1750-500-bce-24/the-caste-system-105-13265/- http://www.ancient.eu/Aryan/

The Eightfold Path

Himalayas

The Eastern and Western Ghats

Ganges River


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