American Civil Rights

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by RociioMicchelle
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
African-American History
Grade:
8

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American Civil Rights

Abraham Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War as Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South. He wanted to bring the Nation back together as quickly as possible and in December 1863 he offered his plan for Reconstruction which required that the States new constitutions prohibit slavery. In January 1865, Congress proposed an amendment to the Constitution which would abolish slavery in the United States. On December 18, 1865, Congress ratified the Thirteenth Amendment formally abolishing slavery. The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated less than one week later. Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's Vice President, briefly continued Lincoln's policies after Lincoln's assassination and in May 1865 announced his own plans for Reconstruction which included a vow of loyalty to the Nation and the abolition of slavery that Southern states were required to take before they could be readmitted to the Nation. Black codes were adopted by midwestern states to regulate or inhibit the migration of free African-Americans to the midwest. Cruel and severe black code laws were adopted by southern states after the Civil War to control or reimpose the old social structure. Southern legislatures passed laws that restricted the civil rights of the emancipated former slaves. Mississippi was the first state to institute laws that abolished the full civil rights of African-Americans.

Martin Luther King,Jr

MLK attented segerated public schools in Georgia, he graduated from high school at the age of 15. In 1954 he bacame a pastor of the Dextor Avenue Baptist church in Montgomery, Alabama in Dec. 1952, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary. During the boycott MLK was arrested, his home was bombed, he was sujected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank. When he was at the age of 35, he was the youngest man to have recieved the Noble Peace Prize, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the Civil Rights Movement. April 4, 1968 he was standing on the balcony of his motel room Memphis, TN where he was to lead to protest march in sysmpathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assasinated.

Brown V. Board of Education

Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Source list- Engelbert, Phillis, and Betz Des Chenes American Civil Rights: Biography Detroit- Bolden, Tonya, and Bob Adelman. MLk: Journey of a King. New York: Abrams for Young Readers, 2006- Bausum, Ann. Marching to the Mountaintop: How Poverty, Labor Fights, and Civil Rights set the stage for Martin Luther King,Jr's Final Hours N.P: np., nd.

Reconstruction after the Civil War

American Civil Rights

In 1954, large portions of the United States had racially segregated schools, made legal by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which held that segregated public facilities were constitutional so long as the black and white facilities were equal to each other, but by the mid 20 century, civil rights groups set up legal and political, challenges to racial segregation. In the early 1950s, NAACP lawyers brought class action lawsuits on behalf of black schoolchildren and their families in Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware, seeking court orders to compel school districts to let black students attend white public schools.

The boycott lasted 382 days, December 21, 1956, the supreme court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requring segregation on busses, Negros and whites rode the busses as equals. Rosa Parks rode at the front of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus on the day the Supreme Court's ban on segregation of the city's buses took effect. A year earlier, she had been arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus.


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