Aluminium

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by KaralaL
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Chemistry

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Aluminium

Atomic Number: 13Atomic Mass: 26.981539 Melting Point: 660.37 °CBoiling Point: 2467.0 °CNumber of Protons/Electrons: 13Number of Neutrons: 14Classification: Other MetalsColor: Silver

ALUMINIUM Symbol: Al

HISTORY- Ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum is still used as a styptic. In 1761, Guyton de Morveau suggested calling the base alum alumine. In 1808, Humphry Davy identified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed alumium and later aluminum (see etymology section, below).- The metal was first produced in 1825 in an impure form by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted. He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam, yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin. Friedrich Wöhler was aware of these experiments and cited them, but after redoing the experiments of Ørsted he concluded that this metal was pure potassium. He conducted a similar experiment in 1827 by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium and yielded aluminium.- Wöhler is generally credited with isolating aluminium (Latin alumen, alum). Further, Pierre Berthier discovered aluminium in bauxite ore. Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville improved Wöhler's method in 1846. As described in his 1859 book, aluminium trichloride could be reduced by sodium, which was more convenient and less expensive than potassium used by Wöhler.- In the mid-1880s, aluminium metal was exceedingly difficult to produce, which made pure aluminium more valuable than gold. So celebrated was the metal that bars of aluminium were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle of 1855.- Napoleon III of France is reputed to held a banquet where the most honored guests were given aluminium utensils, while the others made do with gold.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES- silver-like metal with a slightly bluish tint. - density is 2.708 grams per cubic centimeter. - Aluminum is both ductile and malleable. Ductile means capable of being pulled into thin wires. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets.- excellent conductor of electricity. Silver and copper are better conductors than aluminum but are much more expensive. Engineers are looking for ways to use aluminum more often in electrical equipment because of its lower costs.

SOCIETAL APPLICATIONSToday, aluminum is the most widely used metal in the world after iron.- Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks, railway cars, marine vessels, bicycles, etc.) as sheet, tube, castings, etc.- Packaging (cans, foil, frame of etc.)- Construction (windows, doors, siding, building wire, etc.)- A wide range of household items, from cooking utensils to baseball bats, watches.- Street lighting poles, sailing ship masts, walking poles, etc.- Outer shells of consumer electronics, also cases for equipment e.g. photographic equipment, MacBook Pro's casing- Electrical transmission lines for power distribution- MKM steel and Alnico magnets- Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to 99.999% Al), used in electronics and CDs, and also in wires/cabling.- Heat sinks for electronic appliances such as transistors and CPUs.- Substrate material of metal-core copper clad laminates used in high brightness LED lighting.- Powdered aluminium is used in paint, and in pyrotechnics such as solid rocket fuels and thermite.- Aluminium reacts with hydrochloric acid or with sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen gas.- Aluminium is used to make food containers, because of its resistance to corrosion.- Aluminium with magnesium is used to make body of aircraft.- Aluminium with other metals, used to make railway tracks.- Aluminium is used to make cooking utensils, because it is resistant to corrosion, and light-weight.- A variety of countries, including France, Italy, Poland, Finland, Romania, Israel, and the former Yugoslavia, have issued coins struck in aluminium or aluminium-copper alloys.- Some guitar models sport aluminium diamond plates on the surface of the instruments, usually either chrome or black. Kramer Guitars and Travis Bean are both known for having produced guitars with necks made of aluminium, which gives the instrument a very distinctive sound.

Discoverer

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES- In moist air, it combines slowly with oxygen to form aluminum oxide, this forms a very thin, whitish coating on the aluminum metal. The coating prevents the metal from reacting further with oxygen and protects the metal from further corrosion (rusting). It is easy to see the aluminum oxide on aluminum outdoor furniture and unpainted house siding.- fairly active metal. It reacts with many hot acids. It also reacts with alkalis. - reacts quickly with hot water. In powdered form, it catches fire quickly when exposed to a flame.

Atomic Structure


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