Alexander the Great

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by 200919267NPS
Last updated 7 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Ancient History
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Alexander the Great

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Alexander only made it back to Babylon where he became suddenly sick after a party and died ten days later. No one is sure what he died from, but many suspect poison. The great empire he had built was divided up among his generals, called the Diadochi. The Diadochi ended up fighting each other for many years as the empire fell apart.

Phillip II was murdered by a mysterious person. Alexander then took over his posotion as king.After securing the throne and getting all of Greece under his control, Alexander turned east to conquer more of the world. He moved quickly, using his military genius to win battle after battle conquering many peoples and rapidly expanding the Greek empire. Here is the order of his conquests:First he moved through Asia Minor and what is today Turkey.He took over Syria defeating the Persian Army at Issus and then laying siege to Tyre.Next, he conquered Egypt and established Alexandria as the capital.After Egypt came Babylonia and Persia, including the city of Susa.Then he moved through Persia and began to prepare for a campaign in India.At this point Alexander had accumulated one of the largest empires in history. However, his soldiers were ready to revolt. They wanted to return home to see their wives and children. Alexander agreed and his army turned back.

Alexander's father was King Philip the II. Philip II had built up a strong and united empire in Ancient Greece, which Alexander inherited. Like most children in Athens, Alexander was tutored as a child and learned mathematics, reading, writing, and how to play the lyre. He also would have been instructed on how to fight, ride a horse, and hunt. When Alexander turned thirteen, his father Philip II wanted the best teacher possible for him. He hired the great philosopher Aristotle.At school Alexander met many of his future generals and friends such as Ptolemy and Cassander. He also enjoyed reading the works of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Alexander was supposedly related to the Greek heroes Hercules from his father's side and Achilles from his mother's side.When Alexander was 16, his father left the country to do battle, leaving Alexander as regent, or temporary ruler of Macedonia.He tamed a wild horse named Bucephalus when he was a kid. It was his main horse until it died of old age. Alexander named a city in India after his horse.He never lost a single battle.Legend has it that the Temple of Artemis burnt down the day of Alexander's birth because Artemis was busy attending the birth.His best friend and second in command was the general Hephaestion.

Alexander the Great

LeadershipWhen Alexander was in battle, his troops were always loyal to him, and he could control and contain them. They looked up to him and followed what he said.SOURCE(S):-Document D-Powerpoint-Battle of Gaugamela (youtube video)Alexander was able to conquor and contain 2,000,000 square miles by himself. "...many cities surrendered without a fight. Some were happy to have to Persians removed. Alexander treated these cities rather kindly." Alexander let them keep their culture. This is good, so he will conquer more land.SOURCE(S):-Document CIn the Legend of the Helmet, Alexander is suffering from thirst along with the rest of his troops, but still is leading them through the desert. "...took the helmet and, in full view of his troops, poured the water on the ground." This shows that he cared for his troops and that he considered himself at their level, not above.SOUREC(S):-Document D

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Born to be GreatAlexander's mom thought that he was a son of Zeus, the King of the Gods, when he was born, and she made him believe that. This made him have a bigger ego, but led him to be breaver and to do things that other men would not do. Maybe if he hadn't done them his empire couldn't have been so big, or the Hellinsim Period would never have happened.SOURCE(S):-PowerpointWhen Alexander conquered Egypt, "...Alexander decided to jpurney to the oasis of Siwah to visit a prophet ... the Oracle of Amon - the Egyptian Kind of the Gods. [It told him] ... what he wanted to hear all along - that he was the true son of Zeus (or Ammon), King of Gods. Now that he truly believes that he is the son of a god, he is willing and will do whatever great things it takes to build up his empire.SOURC(E):-Alexander in Egypt from the Perspective of ConqueredAlexander's parents, "...King Phillip of Macedon, and his mother, Olympia, prepared Alexander for kingship by hiring the philosopher Aristotle to teach him acedemic subjects like politics, sports, and warfare." He had a good education, and "With a start like this, Alexander developed a rather high opinion of himself, including the growing belif that he himself was a god." Again, he was more likley to do brave and reckless things if he has a higher opinion of himself, and being a well taught child helped.SOURCE(S):-Background EssayAlexander was born to the position of a King, which almost gaurenteed that he will do great things. Kings have higher power and, Alexander especially, had enough power at his fingertips that he could do his plans to get a bigger empire.SOURCE(S):-Anywhere where it said he was born a king

Military StratgeyAlexander had an empire of 2,000,000 sq. miles, the largest empire in the ancient world. He conquered it in only five battles, probably saving thousands of his men. No other military commander had ever done that, and that was an amazing feat.SOURCE(S):-Battle of Guagemela-PowerpointIn the battle at the Hydaspades river with Porus, Alexander moved his troops across the bank every night, making the noise of men preparing for battle, and Porus paralleled his movements on the opposite bank. Then one night Alexander actually crossed the river, and surrounded Porus's troops. "[Porus's] elephants were now boxed in, and the damage inflicted by them fell on friend no less then foe, with men trampled under as the beasts twisted and turned ... eventually the animals grew tired and their charges lost vigor... Alexander then threw his cavalry in a circle around the entire force ... and to advance as a phalanx ... the Indians all took to flight." Alexander had won the battle.This shows how he was a great military strategist and how he could win a battle with odds of 11,000 men (Macedonians) to 53,000 men (Indians).SOURCE(S):-Document B-Military HistoryIn the battle at Tyre, Alexander found a way into the city, even though Tyre was on an island and had high walls built around it. He built a causeway and, losing many men in the process from Tyrian counterattacks, eventually over came the city. You have to be truly great and to have lots of power to be able to conquer a city with such protection.Also, later, when Alexander tried to conquer other city-states, he will meet no resistance, saving thousands of lives in the process.SOURCE(S):-Powerpoint-Document CAt the Battle of Gaugmela, Alexander distracted the Persian's calvery, then cut through the middle of Dairus's forces, where there was an opening, straight to Darius. He fled and most of his remeining soldiers followed him. Alexander then won the battle. He had much more tactial planning to win the battle, and it would take a military genius to strategize it to win.SOURCE(S):-Battle of Guagmela-Powerpoint"Born into an era of petty tyrants and brutality Alexander the Great used the exceptional education he received ... to marshal his forces in nearly impossible battles. He emerged victorious over the course of 13 years of battles from which ... forged one of the largest empires the world has ever seen."This showed how he was able to use military stratgey to defeat his enormous empire, with odd of sometimes five to one. Only a truly great military commander could win a battle against such odds. SOURCE(S):-Military History Monthly

Legacy/AccomplishmentsHe had the largest empire in the ancient world (2,000,000 square miles), and he conquered all of it in only five decisive battles. How many other people have done that?SOURCE(S):-Document BHe defeated battles against impossible odds, armys with as many as five times (or more) the people in his army.SOURCE(S):-All battlesHe spread Greek culture and people. "The Hellenistic period lasted 300 years", and it took "900 years for Greek culture and literature to start to dissappear in other city-states" (paraphrased)/countries after Alexander's death. This shows how he was able to spread Greek culture and how it stuck for centuries after.SOURCE(S):-Document E

Alexander the Great was born on July 20, 356 BC. He died at the young age of 32 in 323 BC, and he accomplished much in his short life. He reigned as king from 336-323 BC.

A bust of Alexander

Alexander the Great was the king of Macedonia. He is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.

Alexander, leading his armies


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