Alexander The Great

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Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Historical biographies
Grade:
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Alexander The Great

Alexander was a military commander at age sixteen, having undergone military training as his father wished him to have. At the same age, Phillip II left to invade Thrace, leaving Alexander as the regent of Macedonia. Alexander became king of Macedonia at age 20, after his father was assassinated at his daughter's wedding. He continued to plan an assault on Persia after he quelled a revolt by the people.

Education

Alexander the Great, or Alexander III was born in Pella, Greece, on July 20, 356 BC. His parents were King Philip II, king of Macedonia, and his wife, Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus I of Epirus.

As a child, Alexander's tutors included Leonidas, his mother's relative, and Lysimachus, his father's general. Through Lysimachus, Alexander learned how to be a general, according to his father's wishes. At age thirteen, Alexander's father searched for a tutor for Alexander, gaining offers from Isocrates and Speusippus, but eventually deciding on Aristotle, who accepted the job when Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which he had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile. Aristotle taught Alexander and several other students at the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza. Many of these other students, or the "Companions", would become Alexander's future generals and advisors. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander aqquired a liking of the epics of Homer. He brought a copy of the Iliad on his journeys.

Alexander the Great (Part One)By Huy Nguyen

Rise to Power

Alexander the Great ridinghis favorite horse, Bucephalus

Birth

Aristotle and Alexander at theTemple of the Nymphs at Mieza

Travels and Conquests

In his early life, Alexander was raised by the nurse Linike. As a child, he seldom saw his father, who was often on campaigns or away from home. Because of this, his mother, Olympia, was a powerful role-model for him. She tried to turn Alexander against his father. His brothers, sisters, and him were all raised in Pella's royal court. One of Alexander's first tutors was Leonidas. At the age of twelve or twelve years of age, he was a skilled horse- tamer, taming the "untamable" horse Bucephalus, which would become his favorite horse in his conquests.

Alexander's first noted battle was the Battle of Chaeronia, where it was the forces of Macedon versus an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes, where Alexander was one of the leaders for the Macedonians. After his father died in 336 BC, Alexander continued to prepare for war against Persia. In 334 BC., Alexander launched his attack on the Persians, sacking the city of Baalberk. In 333 BC, Alexander met the forces of King Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Issos, defeating him and forcing Darius to flee. The two generals again met at Gaugamela, where Darius was defeated. Shortly after, Darius was assassinated and Alexander went on to burn Persepolis in 330 BC, as revenge for the burning of the Acropolis in the Persian invasion of Greece. Alexander also conquered Egypt and Syria in 331 BC, where he was named pharaoh. Shortly thereafter, in 327 BC, Alexander marched on India. Having heard of Alexander's conquests, the Indian King Omphis of Taxila surrendered without a fight. However, the Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes resisted and in battles in 327 and 326 BC., Alexander subdued them. At the Battle of the Hydaspes River, Alexander defeated King Porus of India. Although Alexander wanted to continue, his worn-out soldiers threatened to mutiny, and he and his army returned to Susa in 324 BC. Alexander would die in Babylon in 323 BC, the cause widely debated, ranging from malaria to poisoning.

A map of Alexander's conquests, battles, and cities named after him.

Family and Early Life

A bust of Alexander


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