A Brief History of Theoretical Physics

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A Brief History of Theoretical Physics

Theoretical Physics

A Brief Overview of

General Relativity was Einstein's revision and generalization of his previously published Special Relativity. This new version included a revolutionary new idea that unified both space and time, and in addition Newtonian gravity. The theory proposed that a four dimensional field (length x, height y, depth z, and a direction of time t) that varied each dimension with energy, and generated a gravitationally inward pull in reaction to mass.

General Relativity

Special Relativity is a theory states that the speed of light, 299,792,458 meters per second, is constant under every circumstance (in a vacuum). Laws of physics prevent any changing effects caused by Newton's inertia (an energy or matter particle's tendency to maintain a uniform linear motion through space when not acted upon by an external force) by warping time and space relative to itself.

From left to right: Albert Einstein, Karl Schwarzschild, Michio Kaku, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Werner Heisenburg

Special Relativity


Fun Fact!Relativity has been proved and is technically not theoretical. However discoveries related to relativity are rapidly coming into view, so scientists still clasify it as theoretical.

Quantum mechanics (also known as quantum physics or quantum theory) is in a word, the movement of the very small. Generally, quantum mechanics is the study of the motion and interactions of subatomic and micro-subatomic particle. Since these particles are unobservable, the science is based on probability and mathematics. A major aspect of the theory is that a particle can double as a probability wave when not observed. The theory is contradictory because most physics theories are based on direct observation, and Albert Einstein, who despised the theory for that reason, once boldly stated "God does not roll dice," referring to probability.

String theory is a radically different idea of the way the universe works. This is also a mathematical theory. The general idea of String Theory is that everything from energy, to fundamental forces, to matter is made of the same sub-microscopic bits of undefined material in a string like forms. If a string vibrates with a certain frequency, it will be a specific micro-subatomic particle in one of four general classifications of particles: bosons, fermions, leptons, quarks. These strings are one dimensional and combine to create the four dimensions, and under high energy, up to eleven. This theory was the explanation for the mysterious Hawking radiation where particles pop in and out of existence. The strings were simply changing vibration state and passing through a particle region. Many variations were created by leading scientists, such as Bosonic, I, IIA, IIB, HO, HE, and M which binds all theories into a single package.

Quantum Field Theory is a revolutionary theory that unifies many radically different physics theories, such as conventional physics (non-theoretical physics), General Relativity (the combination of Newtonian gravity and Special Relativity), and Quantum Mechanics (subatomic movement and interaction). In this theory, Einstein's spacetime field has been modified to incorporate classical mechanics and subatomic action. This made a new formula, instead of Einstein's most famous relativity equation, "E=mc²", is now technically converted to "E²=(mc²)²+(pc)²". The newly added "p" is momentum, an important part of Newton's law f=pa.

Quantum Field Theory

Quantum Mechanics

Super Statistic!The speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second, or 186,282 miles per second. That means that sunlight can reach earth in eight minutes and twenty seconds!

String Theory

Based on The Universe in a Nutshell, Stephen Hawking

I wondered how inertia would affect light, if it has no mass.

I wondered if and how there could be more than three space dimensions and a time dimension.

I still wonder if we will be able to detect eleven dimensional objects because of strings.

Logan Finn


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