3R2- Ying Zhen, Michelle Soh, Michelle Ng, Bea and Afrani

by NAS3R5
Last updated 6 years ago

Health & Fitness
Illness & Disease

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3R2- Ying Zhen, Michelle Soh, Michelle Ng, Bea and Afrani

Risk Factors for GERD includes:-Alcohol-Hiatal Hernia-Obesity-Pregnancy-Scleroderma-Smoking-Diabetes-Asthma-Delayed stomach emptying

What is GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE(GERD)?It is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter(ring of muscle between the osephagus and the stomach. It is the return of the stomach's contents back up into the esophagus.

CAUSESGERD is caused by frequent acid reflux — the backup of stomach acid or bile into the esophagus.When you swallow, the lower esophageal sphincter — a circular band of muscle around the bottom part of your esophagus — relaxes to allow food and liquid to flow down into your stomach. Then it closes again.However, if this valve relaxes abnormally or weakens, stomach acid can flow back up into your esophagus, causing frequent heartburn and disrupting your daily life. This constant backwash of acid can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing it to become inflamed (esophagitis). Over time, the inflammation can erode the esophagus, causing complications such as bleeding or breathing problems.


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SYMPTOMS-Regurgitation of food -Heartburn-Difficulty swallowing-Coughing-Sensation of a lump in the throat-Chest pains-Hoarseness or sore throat-Constant sleep disturbance

COMPLICATIONS-Narrowing of the esophagus(esophageal stricture). Damage to cells in the lower esophagus from acid exposure leads to formation of scar tissue. The scar tissue narrows the food pathway, causing difficulty swallowing.-An open sore in the esophagus(esophageal ulcer). Stomach acid can severely erode tissues in the esophagus, causing an open sore to form. The esophageal ulcer may bleed, cause pain and make swallowing difficult.-Precancerous changes to the esophagus. In Barrett's esophagus, the color and composition of the tissue lining the lower esophagus change. These changes are associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. The risk of cancer is low, but your doctor will likely recommend regular endoscopy exams to look for early warning signs of esophageal cancer.

Treatment and Drugs-Antacids that neutralise stomach acids-Medications to reduce acid production-Medications that block acid production and heal the esophagus



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