2.2 Classifying Rocks

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2.2 Classifying Rocks

2.2 Classifying Rocks

Key Concept 1To study a rock sample, geologists observe the rock's mineral composition, color, and texture.

Key Concept 2Geologists have classified rocks into 3 major groups: igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock.

Vocabulary1. basalt - a dark, dense igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust2. grain - particles of minerals or other rocks, which give the rock its texture3. granite - a generally light colored igneous rock, found in continental crust4. igneous rock - a rock formed from the cooling of molten rock, at or below the surface5. metamorphic rock - a type of rock that forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions6. rock forming mineral - any of the commmon minerals that make up most of the rocks that form Earth's crust7. sedimentary rock - a rock which forms when small particles of rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together8. texture - the look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grains

Rocks are made up of a mixture of minerals and other materials. Some rocks only contain a single mineral. Other rocks contain several minerals. The mineral composition determines the color of the rock. About 20 minerals make up most of the rocks that form Earth's crust. These minerals are known as the rock forming minerals.

Most rocks are made of particles of minerals and other rocks, which geologists call grains. Grains give the rock its texture. To describe the texture of a rock, geologists use terms that are based on the size, shape, and pattern of the grains.Grain sizeFine grain, coarse grain, no visible grainGrain shaperounded grain, jagged grainGrain patternnonbanded, banded

Science and the BibleWhen we accept Jesus, we are changed into a new creation, like metamorphic rocksEzekiel 28:13 - quartz is a rock forming mineral1 Samuel 2:2 - God is compared to a rockDeuteronomy 32:13 - flinty rock: sedimentary


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