[2013] Matthew Brown: 1st Semester Glog

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by mikeeby
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Physics
Grade:
8

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[2013] Matthew Brown: 1st Semester Glog

Element name

Element symbol

Atomic Number. This number is the amount of protons in one atom of that element. For example: hydrogen has 1 proton an atom of hydrogen, so it has an atomic number of 1.

Atomic Mass. This number is the amount of protons and neutrons in an atom of that element. For example: hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1. (Hydrogen is different because it has 1 proton and 1 electron - NO NEUTRON.)

Compunds are pure substances composed of 2+ different solutions. They become a compound through a chemical reaction.

Chemical properties describe an object's ability to change into different states of matter with different properties.Chemical changes change one substance into another substance at a molecular level, resulting in a chemical reaction.

Atoms are made up of three parts:- PROTON: positively charged particle in ncleus of atom- NEUTRON: netrually charged particle in the nucleus of an atom- ELECTRON: negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus

The Periodic Table of Elements, a table showing all 118 chemical elements, arranged in certain ways:- by type of element- state of element- mass of element: the higher atomic number an element has, the higher its atomic mass is.- Groups: vertical columns with similar properties - the same number of valence electrons in atom's outhermost shell (valence electrons)- Periods: horizontal rows with the same number of energy shells (clasified as Metals, Non-metals, and Metalloids)

Mixtures are a combination of 2+ substances NOT vchemically combined (such as Chex Mix). There is no occurring chemical change.

Physical properties describe an object. These characteristics are observed and measured without changing the object's identity. These proprties help identify the object or substance.Physical changes affect physical properties but not the chemical composition of an object. The object goes through a physical change, but its identity stays the same.

Colloids are a mixture consisting of tiny particles that are different in size between theose in solutions and those in suspensions and that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas.

Solutions are a mixture of 2+ particles evenly distributed. The particles do not settle out and they cannot be filtered. Light can go straight through a solution.

Suspensions are a mixture in which particles are distributed throughout. The particles are heavy enough to be settled out and filtered. The particles can be easily seen and they scatter light.

Colloids are a mixture in which particles are evenly distributed and are suspended throughout. The particles are small but not as small as as solutions.

Matter is anything that takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms, which are the building blocks of matter.

Alone atoms have as many electrons and neutrons as protons.

A salt is a neutral reaction between an acid and a base. The acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.

Acids are solutions that have an excess amount of H+ ions. The more H+ ions in a solution, the more acidic a solution is.

Bases are solutions with an excess of OH- ions. A base is usually a substance that can accept hydrogen ions.

Beta particles are ast moving electrons emitted from a nucleus of an atom that is undergoing radioactive decay. A netron changes into a proton and an electron. The atom loses one neutron but gains a proton.

Alpha particles are identical to a helium atom's nucleus: two protons and two neutrons.

Most natural isotopes are stable. Few manmade isotopes that are manmade are unstable. To be stable, an isotope must release particles. This process is called radioactive decay and results in 3 types of particles:

Gamma particles, or gamma rays, not charged like alpha and beta particles. Gamma particles give off an electromagnetic radiation with a high frequency.

Fusion is the act of nuclei combining to produce a nucleus of greater mass. The process results in lots of energy and is too hot to control.

Fission is the bombardment of neutrons of an atom splitting the atom's nucleus into smaller fragments. This type of action is a chain reaction.

Covalent bonds are forces that hold 2+ atoms together. This type of force requires atoms to share electrons to result in atoms filling their outermost shell of, usually, 8 valence electrons (this is the Octet Rule.)

Ionic bonds are a tye of fore that transfrers electrons from atoms to other atoms. One atoms loses electrons (positive ion) while the other atom gains electrons (negative ion).

Newton's Third Law of Motion:Ever action has an opposite and equal reaction.

Newton's Second Law of Motion:Force = mass x acceleration.

Newton's First Law of Motion Law of Inertia):An object at rest will saty at rest, while an object in motion will stay in motion and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

Sir Isaac Newton created 3 laws to explain the relationship between an object and its motion:


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