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- The critical moment for the 2009 outbreak was between 1990 and 1993. - A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus generated the swine H1N2 strain. - Finally, the last step in history was in 2009, when the virus H1N2 co-infected a human host at the same time as the Euroasiatic H1N1 swine strain. - This led to the emergence of a new human H1N1 strain, which caused the 2009 pandemic.
The progression of its creation:Pig ---> Pig ---> Bird ---> Humans - The influenza is a virion and is roughly spherical. - It is an enveloped RNA virus - The outer layer is a lipid membrane which is taken from the host cell in which the virus multiplies. - Inserted into the lipid membrane are ‘spikes’, which are glycoproteins containing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. - To start the replicative cycle these proteins bind to receptors on the host cell, creating entry. - The viral H1N1 RNA then makes copies in the host wil viral RNA polymerase, leading to the production of new viruses that bud from the host in an envelope to attack other cells.
- As result of the high awarness for the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, the prevention against the flu has become much more prevalent. -This virus is used for research to identify changes in the genetic make-up of the virus isolated in different parts of the world. - It is used to prepare antisera to study the antigenic relationships among the viruses and to monitor antigenic drift – changes in the virus that could have an impact on the suitability of different vaccines. - This work on the structure and evolution of the virus thus feeds into the development of vaccines.- Scientists have developed a way to deliver the flu vaccine (developed so intensely because of H1N1) through a nasal spray now.
Upon viral infection:- Highly contagious respiratory disease- A person caring for someone sick with human swine flu can become infected from inhaling infected sneeze or cough droplets. This is known as direct contact.- The human swine flu virus can live for about two hours outside of the body. Infection can occur when a person touches a contaminated object (such as a dirty tissue) and then touches his or her own nose, eyes or mouth. This is known as indirect contact.
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Who's Who in the Virus World...The H1N1 Virus
Also known as...Swine Flu