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Tourette Syndrome

by tish89
Last updated 3 years ago

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Complex tics are distinct, coordinated patterns of movements involving several muscle groups. Complex motor tics might include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may actually appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting. Simple vocal tics may include throat-clearing, sniffing/snorting, grunting, or barking. More complex vocal tics include words or phrases. Perhaps the most dramatic and disabling tics include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics including coprolalia (uttering swear words) or echolalia (repeating the words or phrases of others). Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group, commonly called a premonitory purge.

Causes

Simple motor tics are sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. Some of the more common simple tics include eye blinking and other vision irregularities, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking. Simple vocalizations might include repetitive throat-clearing, sniffing, or grunting sounds

The cause of Tourette syndrome is unknown, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions (including the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex), the circuits that interconnect these regions, and the neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) responsible for communication among nerve cells. Given the often complex presentation of Tourette syndrome, the cause of the disorder is likely to be equally complex.

What is TS

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. The early symptoms of Tourette syndrome can be observed first in childhood, with the average beginning between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Tourette syndrome occurs in people from all racial groups. Males are affected about three to four times more often than females.

Citations

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/tourette/data.htmlhttp://www.medicinenet.com/tourette_syndrome/article.htm http://www.emedicinehealth.com/tourettes_syndrome/page12_em.htm

Simple

Complex

Their Story...

Symptoms: Tics

Prevention

There is no known prevention. However, some of the psychological complications can be secondary to the social limitations imposed by the disease. It is very important to conduct close monitoring of the patient for the early detection of emergent emotional disorders. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it is not known exactly how many people have TS. A study done by the CDC found that in the United States based on a parent report 3 out of 1,000 children 6-17 years of age. The results represent an about 148,000 children. Other studies have estimated the rate of 6 per every 1,000 children. It is estimated that 200,000 Americans have the most severe form of Tourette syndrome. As many as one in 100 exhibits milder and less complex

Diagnosis &Treatment

Tourette syndrome is a diagnosis that doctors make after verifying that the patient has had both motor and vocal tics for at least 1 year. No cure! Treatment is anticipated to help control tics that interfere with everyday activities and functioning. Treatment is unnecessary when tics aren’t severe. No medication is useful to everyone with TS, none completely eliminates symptoms, and they all have side effects. Most neuroleptic side effects can be managed by initiating treatment slowly and reducing the dose when side effects occur.

By: Latisha Cooke


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