[2015] Raine Klover: Photosynthesis and Respiration

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by BioErin
Last updated 1 year ago

Cycles & Processes

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Photosynthesis & Respiration



In stage two, the pyruvate molecules are transported into the mitochondria. In the mitochondria, the pyruvate, through a process of oxidation, is converted into acetyl-CoA that is then used in the Krebs Cycle. The other products are CO2 and NADH.

Respiration is the process through which glucose is used to produce ATP which is the energy source for cells. In stage one, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called glycolysis. The products of glycolysis are 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvate.

In stage three, acetyl-CoA is broken down through an oxidative respiration process called the Krebs cycle that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The Krebs cycle produces NADH,FADH2, and ATP.

In stage four, the NADH and FADH2 proceeds to the inner mitochondrial membrane and goes through an electron transport chain. The process releases hydrogen protons into the mitochondrial membrane space. These protons are then brought back into the mitochondrial matrix through facilitated diffusion process that also produces many molecules of ATP.

Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of plants. This process converts energy from the sun into chemical energy that the plant can use. The substrates of photosynthesis are energy from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts which are organelles in the cells of leaves.

Stage one, which is a light dependent reaction, occur in the thylakoids of the chloroplasts. The thylakoids contain chlorophyll. This pigment absorbs the sun’s energy (photons) and provide electrons and hydrogen ions but also produces oxygen. The electrons and hydrogen ions are used to create ATP and NADPH. ATP is an energy storage molecule. NADPH is an electron carrier/donor molecule.

Stage two, the light independent reaction Calvin Cycle, occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts. These reactions do not need light to take place. The process uses ATP and NADPH which were created using light in the first stage. Carbon dioxide and energy from ATP along with NADPH are used to form glucose.


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