(1891 - 1974)
James Chadwick was born in Cheshire, England in October 20th, 1891. He attended Manchester University in 1908 and graduated with Honours from the School of Physics in 1911. He spent the next two years as a grad student with Professor Rutherford while working for his Master’s degree in Science, which was bestowed in 1913.
After World War I, in 1919, he returned to England and accepted a position at Cambridge, resuming work under Rutherford, who had moved to the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge). In 1921 he was elected Fellow of Gonville and Caius College and became Assistant Director of Research in the Cavendish Laboratory in 1923. He was elected a Fellow for the Royal Society in 1927 and in 1932, he made one of the fundamental discoveries of nuclear science when he proved the existence of neutrons. Chadwick remained in Cambridge until he was elected to the Lyon Jones Chair of Physics at the University of Liverpool, in 1935. From 1943 to 1946, he worked in the United States as the Head of the British Mission attached to the Manhattan Project for the Atomic Bomb. In this capacity, he was a science advisor to Oppenheimer. He retired from active physics in 1948.
In 1925, he married Aileen Stewart-Brown of Liverpool, and had twin daughters. They lived at Denbigh, North Wales, where when not working, he enjoyed gardening and fishing.
Chadwick was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society in 1932 and subsequently the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935 for his discovery of the Neutron. In 1945, he was knighted Sir James Chadwick. Sir James died on July 24, 1974 at Cambridge.
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