[2014] mhernandez222: 1st Semester Review

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by mikeeby
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1st Semester Review

Things that I will be covering:AtomsPeriodic TableLaws Of Motion/ AccelerationSolutionsTransportation of Energy

The Periodic TableThe Periodic Table of Elements arranges the known elements into one table. There are certain groups depending on their properties. On the left side, you have the alkali metals, then in the middle are the transition metals, then to the traditional metals more to the right. It then goes to smeimetals and nonmetals more to the right. On the very right side, there are the Noble Gases. On the bottom, there are the lanthanide and actinide sections. The Periodic Table is also arranged based on their valence electrons. It goes from 1-8 on the left, then 8 two more times, then to 1A-8A on the right. Many different elements can perform chemical bonds to form new ions.

By: Michael Hernandez



Transportation of Energy

AtomsAtoms are the smallest building block of matter in the universe. They contain at least one neutron, at least one proton, and at least one electron. The protons and the neutrons are arranged in the center of the atom called the Nucleus. The nucleus is the biggest part and is what is mainly shown of the atom. Electrons are negatively charged, protons are positively charged, and neutrons are uncharged. The electrons in the outermost shell of the atom are called the valence electrons. They can help create chemical bonds.

Transportation of EnergyConduction- heat is transferred from one object into the other through direct contactConvection- the transfer of heat through a liquid or a gas and lots of molecular motionRadiation- the transfer of heat through rays or waves of energy (particles)

SolutionsSolutions- a mixture of two substances combined Solute- the substance mixed in with the original solventSolvent- the orginal substance that dissolves a soluteConductivity- water's ability to conduct an electric currentConcentration- the amount a solute can dissolve in a solventRaising the temperature of a substance can help the solute dissolve more into the solvent. It dissolves by stirring it.Acids- a solution that has an excess of +1 ions; common household acids include vinegar, lemons, car batteries, etc.Bases- a solution that has an excess of OH ions; common household bases include cleaning products, chalk, blood, etc.Salts- a solution that is a result of an acid and a base nuetralizing; common salts include fertilizer, road salt, iodized salt, etc.

Laws of Motion/ Acceleration & ForcesNewton's First Law- an object in motion/ at rest will stay in motion/at rest unless an unbalanced force is exerted on itNewton's Second Law- Acceleration depends on the force exerted on an object and the object's massNewton's Third Law- when an object exerts a force onto another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite forceMass in an object is how much matter it has, ang weight is how much gravitational force is exerted in an object in a specific area. Velocity is the speed in a particular direction and the acceleration is the change in velocity divided by time.


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