World War I 1. Nearly 10 million soldiers died and about 21 million were wounded. U.S. deaths totaled 116,516. 2. Four empires collapsed: the Russian Empire in 1917, the German and the Austro-Hungarian in 1918, and the Ottoman in 1922. 3. Independent republics were formed in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, and Turkey. 4. Most Arab lands that had been part of the Ottoman Empire came under the control of Britain and France. 5. The Bolsheviks took power in Russia.